英国贝尔法斯特女王大学教授 伊丽莎白•克雷格 （赵一帆 摄）
自欧洲少数族裔权力发展机制被提上议事日程开始，时间已经过去了近25年。其开始的标志之一是1990年6月29日欧洲安全合作会议（如今已成为欧洲安全与合作组织）在哥本哈根宣言中纳入了少数族裔权力保护的章节。欧洲委员会（Council of Europe）随后将该政治性宣言转化为具有约束力的法律责任，这个过程在1994年10月10日欧洲保护少数民族框架公约被采用后最终得以完成 。尽管大家认为《欧洲保护少数民族框架公约》）=（FCNPM ）要求各国要有促进实质性平等的义务，但其首要目标是保护文化身份 。因此，它让我们的目光再次聚焦，关注少数族裔文化权力在欧洲少数族裔框架协议中的作用。随后，在1990年代初期，在欧洲议会的支持下，欧洲区域性及少数族裔语言宪章通过 。据解释报告所说，其首要目的是为了文化，并打算保护和促进区域或少数族裔语言发展，这些语言作为欧洲文化遗产的部分受到了威胁 。然而，它主要关切的是对区域和少数族裔语言的保护，而非对该语言使用者权力的保护。
Protecting and Promoting Cultural Rights under the Council of Europe’s Framework for the Protection of National Minorities
It is now over quarter of a century since the initiative was taken for the development of the European minority rights regime. This began with the inclusion of a section on minority rights in the Copenhagen Document adopted by the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (now the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe) on 29 June 1990. The Council of Europe them took forward the translation of these political commitments into legally binding obligations, a process which culminated in the adoption of the FCPNM for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNPM) on 10 November 1994. The FCPNM is often perceived as an instrument primarily about the protection of cultural identity, although it does also impose obligations on States also in relation to the promotion of substantive equality. It therefore provides a useful focus for consideration of the role of cultural rights within the European minority framework. The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages was also adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe in the early 1990s. According to the Explanatory Report, its ‘overriding purpose is cultural’ and ‘designed to protect and promote regional or minority languages as a threatened aspect of Europe’s cultural heritage’. However, its primary focus is on the protection of regional and minority languages, rather than the rights of speakers of such languages.
The focus in this paper is on the approach to cultural rights under the FCPNM, although references will also be made where appropriate to the Languages Charter. The paper starts off by discussing the significance of the decision to opt for a FCPNM rather than additional protocol on cultural rights to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It proceeds to consider approaches by States to ratification and to the scope of application, as well as the system established to monitor compliance with the obligations therein. The rest of the paper will then focus will be on the substantive approach to cultural rights, and on current debates over the role of integration within a minority rights framework.