东北财经大学人权研究与教育中心执行主任，教授 鲜开林 （赵一帆 摄）
New economy of ethnic minority rights protection of China
Xian Kai Lin
Abstract:In China, the Communist Party and central government have been working on the legislation and enforcement of types of legal rights for minority groups. Since the 18th National Congress of CPC (the 18th National Congress), the Party and government have devoted more efforts to the five new development concepts—“people centered”, and to firmly insist on the principle of equal development among nationalities, especially these for minority groups. Minorities enjoy the civil rights and freedom as Han does under the Constitution and laws, besides, they have privileges of rights and freedom exclusively for them. Minorities’ economic right is a centralized reflection and vivid image of civil economic right in minority groups, which is the precondition of any other rights for minority groups.
Since the 18th National Congress, works on guaranteeing minority groups’ economic rights in China could be concluded in three highlights. 1. The new realm of guaranteeing minority groups’ economic rights in China. It has been mainly reflected in the guide of the China Dream’s human rights value and sharing the achievement of constructing a moderately prosperous society in all aspects for the new development of minority groups’ economic right. Xi Jinping stated: “The most onerous work of constructing a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, is in the rural areas, especially the minorities of poverty areas”, “Will not have a minority group or region fall behind, 1.3 billion people must benefit altogether the achievement of the well off society.” Since the 18th National Congress, government has continued the preferential policies for minority groups, and the investment on economic social development has been increased continually, which ensures minority groups’ economic development rights. The poverty population of eight ethnic provinces and regions has been decreased from 39.17 million to 22.05 million, the poverty reduction rate is 43.7%; the poverty incidence rate declines from 26.5% to 14.7%. 2. The new contents of guaranteeing minority groups’ economic rights in China. First, keeping the pace with the well off society construction, and helping minority people have “the sense of achievement” on income increase under the guarantee of economic rights. Second, ensuring the same quality of public services, and helping minority people have “the sense of achievement” on public service under the guarantee of economic rights. Third, ensuring the same rights of legal protection, and helping minority people have “the sense of achievement” on fairness and justice under the guarantee of economic rights. 3. The measures of guaranteeing minority groups’ economic rights in China. First, implementing the strategy of targeted and precise poverty alleviation. Second, creating a fair legal environment for economic development, making the development of ethnic region and protection of minority people’s legal rights law-based, and maintaining border stability according to law. Third, making the guarantee by institutional innovation, and having assistance to the selected area. The basic goal of the assistance is to facilitate social and political stability in minority groups. The assistant funds and projects should be in favor of grass root level and people’s livelihood issues of minority groups. Four, based on poverty alleviation and education improvement, enhancing “blood making” function of minority groups’ economic rights.