何士青:中国疫情防控中的基层治理与人权保障 - 第二单元:人权保障与抗击新冠疫情 - 中国人权网

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何士青:中国疫情防控中的基层治理与人权保障

2020-06-02 11:34:35来源:中国人权网

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华中科技大学人权法律研究院何士青教授(网络会议视频截图)

  2020年5月30日下午,由中国人权研究会指导、华中科技大学人权法律研究院主办的“疫情防控中的中西方人权观比较”国际视频研讨会召开。会议采取现场和网络相结合的形式,来自联合国人权高专办、联合国人权高专办驻几内亚办事处、奥地利、荷兰、英国、巴基斯坦、尼泊尔和中国等国家和地区的40余名人权专家、官员参加了线上研讨。华中科技大学人权法律研究院何士青教授在”第二单元:人权保障与抗击新冠疫情“上作题为《中国疫情防控中的基层治理与人权保障》的发言。

中国疫情防控中的基层治理与人权保障

何士青

  充分实现人权和实现充分人权是当今时代各国人民的共同愿望,也是中国人民长期为之奋斗的美好目标。当今中国已经进入一个人权旗帜高扬的新时代,保障人权是党和政府治国理政的价值依据,也是中国基层治理实现善治的根本目的。在这里,本人以疫情防控为范例,对基层善治与人权保障提出浅见。

  一、中国人权保障对基层善治的诉求

  在当今时代,尊重和保障人权成为衡量政治文明的重要尺度,而各国对人权的保障因历史传统、思想文化、社会制度等方面的不同而在方法和措施等方面各具特点。中国的国情决定了人权保障的中国特色,中国的人权保障不仅需要高层的科学设计,而且需要基层的良好治理。基层社会是人民群众直接置身其中的社会组织形式,也是人民群众实践和保障人权的基本平台。基层治理状况直接关系到人权的实现程度,基层善治是充分实现人权的基本诉求。首先,基层善治以和谐有序为要件,而基层和谐有序是充分实现人权不可获取的条件。其次,基层善治以保障民生为根本目的,而保障民生实质上是实现生存权。再次,基层善治以群众自治为要义,而群众自治是民主权利的重要实现方式。

  二、疫情防控使基层善治的人权保障价值凸显

  当今时代是一个风险事件频发的不确定性时代,中国与其他国家、地区一样,自然灾害、事故灾难、公共卫生事件、社会安全事件等风险事件时有发生。新冠疫情爆发是当今人类社会发展中偶然发生的一个重大偶然事件,打破社会发展的连续性,扰乱了正常的社会秩序,使人们的生活陷入混乱中,使人权保障受到挑战:一是疫情防控使部分人的自由权行使受到限制;二是疫情防控使部分人的财产权受到影响;三是疫情防控使部分人的相当生活水准权受到克减。

  在疫情防控中如何实现人权保障是对基层治理能力的一次重大考验,面对对这次大考,基层治理交出了令人满意的答卷。从宏观上说,基层是疫情防控的排头兵,居委会、村委会、基层党组织、基层群众等基层各方力量被整合起来组建成防控工作队;网格化管理卓有成效,网格员既做信息核查员、政策宣传员,又做矛盾调解员、群众服务员,筑牢疫情社区防控的“第一道防线”,基层的疫情防控工作为战胜疫情从而保障广大人民群众的人权做出了巨大贡献。从微观上看,基层组织在疫情期间通过具体工作尽最大努力保障广大人民群众的人权。在生活保障方面,基层组织成为联系群众与商家的桥梁,志愿者汇总群众购物信息、分发所购物资,对年龄大者、身体欠佳者送货上门,满足社区群众的基本生活需求,保障了人民群众的基本生活水准权的实现。在医疗保障方面,基层医疗卫生机构和基层医务人员通过网络诊断、送药上门等方式满足人民群众的就医需要,保障人民群众的健康权。

  当然,面对突发起来的新冠疫情,某些小区、某些村组基于对于疫情风险的恐慌心理而实施“邻避”行为,如在道路上堆石块、砌砖墙甚至挖断道路等。邻避行为具有违法的性质,也妨碍其他人的权利实现。

  三、以疫情防控为契机推进基层善治与人权保障的统一

  新冠疫情会随着时间的流逝与我们渐行渐远,新冠疫情防控事件也终将成为历史陈迹。但是,肆虐横行的传染病疫情在未来不可能完成绝迹,毕竟人类对疾病有太多的未知。人不能两次踏入同一条河流,以疫情防控为契机推进基层治理创新,对于实现基层善治与人权保障的统一是大有裨益的。在这里,本人提出三点建议。

  第一,以中国特色的人权理念为思想指南。基层治理创新不是理论家毫无依据的主观臆断,也不是基层组织及其工作人员天马行空地乱搞一气,而是必须以具有中国特色的人权理念为思想指南。在中国,生存权和发展权是基本人权,因而基层治理创新必须立足于基层组织的职能,将保障基层人员的生存权、发展权放在首位,而疫情防控中的基层治理则要聚焦于健康权、基本生活水准权的保障,同时注重基层人员对基层公共事务的参与权、监督权等其他权利的实现。

  第二,健全自治、法治、德治相结合的基层治理体系。一要完善基层的选举制度、议事制度、事务公开制度、民主评议制度等各项基层治理制度;二要加强对基层治理的政策、经济和人力的支持,“推动社会治理和服务重心向基层下移,把更多资源下沉到基层,更好提供精准化、精细化服务”;三要完善基层治理的途径与方法,保障基层群众能够自由表达自己的意愿、自主地管理自己的事情、自为地创造自己幸福的生活;四要加强基层法治宣传和道德建设,提高基层群众法治意识和道德素质,使基础群众积极主动地参与基层治理,使基层治理换发生机和活力。

  第三,加强党组织对基层治理的领导。党的十九届四中全会提出“健全基层党组织领导的基层群众自治机制”。加强党组织对基层治理的领导,一要坚持服务基层群众的价值理念,坚持群众观点,走群众路线,集中基层群众的智慧,听取基层群众的意见,反映基层群众的呼声,满足基层群众的正当要求,保障基层群众的合法权益。二要树立风险意识,提高基层党组织应对风险管理的能力。深入调查研究,掌握基层情况,做好防范工作,将风险事件化解在萌芽之中;一旦风险事件发生,则进行快速反应,维护基层社会秩序,带领群众应对风险,最大限度地保障群众的生命、健康和财产安全。三加强基层党组织建设,优化领导班子设置,加强对基层党员干部的教育,提纲基层党员干部的治理能力和水平,形成一支能治理、善治理的工作队伍。

  总之,基层善治与人权保障是当今中国的两大课题,如何将这两大课题结合起来值得深入研究和探讨,本人的观点是以人权理念引领基层善治、以基层善治推进人权实现,这只是一孔之见,不对之处请批评指正。

  谢谢!


Grassroots Governance and Human Rights Protection during the COVID-19 Epidemic Prevention and Control in China

He Shiqing

The full realization of human rights and the realization of full human rights are the common wish of the peoples of all countries in this era. They are also a desired goal that the Chinese people have long been seeking to accomplish. Today, China has entered a new era in which the banner of human rights is held high. The protection of human rights is a value the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government pursue in the governance of the country, and is also the fundamental purpose of China’s good grassroots governance. Here, I would like to take COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control as an example to put forward my opinions on good grassroots governance and human rights protection.

1. The pursuit of good grassroots governance in human rights protection in China

Nowadays, respecting and protecting human rights has become a key yardstick by which to measure political civilization. Protection of human rights varies in terms of methods and measures due to differences in historical traditions, thoughts, culture, and social systems in different countries. Subject to its national conditions, human rights protection in China requires not only scientific high-level design, but also good grassroots governance. The grassroots level society is a form of social organization in which the masses exist, and it is also a fundamental platform for the masses to exercise and protect human rights. The status of grassroots governance is directly related to how human rights are realized, and good grassroots governance is required for the full realization of human rights. Firstly, good grassroots governance is built on harmony and order, which are prerequisites for the full realization of human rights. Secondly, the fundamental purpose of good grassroots governance is to ensure people’s livelihood, which is essentially the realization of the right to survival. Thirdly, the essence of good grassroots governance is mass autonomy, which is an important way of realizing democratic rights.

2. COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control highlight the role of good grassroots governance in human rights protection

We are living in an era full of risks and uncertainty. Like other countries and regions, China suffers frequent contingencies such as natural disasters, accidents, public health crises, and social security events. The outbreak of COVID-19 is a major incident that has happened by chance in the development of human society. It disrupts the continuity of social development and normal social order, plunges people’s life into chaos, and challenges the protection of human rights. Disease prevention and control measures restrict the exercise of some people’s right to freedom, infringe on the property rights of some people, and harm the living standards of some people.

In terms of grassroots governance, China rises to the serious challenge of realizing human rights protection in epidemic prevention and control. At the macro level, grassroots level is the vanguard of disease prevention and control, including resident committees, village committees, grassroots Party organizations, the grassroots, and other grassroots forces. They are integrated to form a task force for prevention and control. Grid management works well, with grid operators functioning as information verifiers, policy publicists, mediators, and attendants.

They build the “first line of defense” in the local communities against the spread of COVID-19 and make great contributions to the safeguarding of human rights through disease prevention and control efforts. At the micro level, grassroots organizations have done their utmost to maximize the protection of human rights of the people through concrete work. In terms of everyday supplies, grassroots organizations serve as a bridge between the masses and businesses. Volunteers gather the shopping needs of the masses and distribute the purchased goods to the buyers; and deliver to the elderly and those in poor health. Their efforts help meet the basic living needs of communities and ensure the realization of the people’s right to basic living standards. In terms of healthcare, grassroots medical and health institutions and staff meet public healthcare needs through online diagnosis and home delivery service of medicines to protect the people’s right to health.

Of course, in the face of the sudden outbreak of COVID-19, some communities and villages in a panic implemented “not-in-my-backyard” (NIMBY) measures, such as building roadblocks, laying brick walls and even destroying roads. NIMBY behavior is illegal and hinders the realization of other People’s rights.

3. Promotion of the unity of good grassroots governance and human rights protection amidst the COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control

The COVID-19 pandemic will be over with the passage of time, and the prevention and control efforts will eventually become history. However, rampant infectious diseases won’t be eliminated altogether because after all humans have too much to learn from diseases. People can’t step into the same river twice. Using the COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control as an opportunity, China should promote innovation in grassroots governance, which is of great benefit in achieving the unity of good grassroots governance and human rights protection. Here, I would like to make three suggestions.

First, China should take the concept of human rights with Chinese characteristics as a thinking guide. Innovation in grassroots governance is neither baseless assumption by theorists, nor unrestrained actions by grassroots organizations and their staff. Instead, it must be guided by the concept of human rights with Chinese characteristics. In China, the right to survival and to development are basic human rights. Therefore, innovation in grassroots governance must be based on the functions of grassroots organizations, prioritizing the protection of the right to survival and to development at grassroots level. Grassroots governance amidst the COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control should focus on the protection of the right to health and to basic living standards, as well as the realization of the rights of the grassroots to participation in and supervision of public affairs at grassroots level.

Second, China should improve the grassroots governance system that combines autonomy, the rule of law and the rule of virtue. China must improve grassroots governance system, including grassroots election, deliberations, transparency, and democratic evaluation systems. It must strengthen policy, financial, and human resources support for grassroots governance, and “promote the implementation of social governance and services at grassroots level, provide more resources to the grassroots organizations, and provide more precise and targeted services”. It must improve the means and methods of grassroots governance to ensure that the grassroots can freely express their wishes, manage their own affairs, and create a happy life for themselves. It must strengthen publicity of rule of law and moral development, improve the grassroots’ awareness of the rule of law and moral standards, enable the masses to actively participate in grassroots governance, and make grassroots governance full of vitality.

Third, China must strengthen the leadership of Party organizations in grassroots governance. At the Fourth Plenary Session of the Party’s 19th National Congress, the CPC proposed “to improve the mechanism of grassroots self-government led by local Party organizations”. To strengthen the leadership of Party organizations in grassroots governance, China must adhere to the values of serving the grassroots, adhere to the mass viewpoint and the mass line, concentrate the wisdom of the grassroots, listen to their opinions, reflect their voices, meet their legitimate needs, and protect their legitimate rights and interests. China must also have a sense of risk and improve the ability of grassroots Party organizations to respond to risks. China must conduct in-depth survey and research, grasp the situation at grassroots level, implement prevention measures, and resolve risk incidents at an early stage. Once a contingency happens, China should be able to deliver a rapid response, maintain grassroots social order, lead the masses as they cope with risks, and maximize protection of the lives and health of the masses. Furthermore, China must strengthen the construction of grassroots Party organizations, optimize the composition of leadership teams, strengthen the education of grassroots Party cadres, boost their governance capabilities, and build a team capable of good governance.

In a word, I believe that the concept of human rights should drive good grassroots governance, which in turn should promote the realization of human rights. This is my view on good grassroots governance and human rights protection, the two major issues in China today, and I’d appreciate your criticism and comments.

Thank you!


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