帕特里斯·瓦哈德:为应对新冠疫情,需要重振人类团结、坚持以人为本的国际合作 - 第三单元:人权文化多样性与团结合作抗击疫情 - 中国人权网

首页 > 专题2020 > “疫情防控中的中西方人权观比较”国际视频研讨会 > 第三单元:人权文化多样性与团结合作抗击疫情 >

帕特里斯·瓦哈德:为应对新冠疫情,需要重振人类团结、坚持以人为本的国际合作

2020-06-02 17:30:01来源:中国人权网

 \
联合国人权高专办驻几内亚代表帕特里斯·瓦哈德先生(网络会议视频截图)

\
联合国人权高专办官员什亚米·普维玛纳辛河博士(网络会议视频截图)
 
\
瓦拉达雷斯·瓦斯康塞洛斯·内托迭戈博士(网络会议视频截图)

  2020年5月30日下午,由中国人权研究会指导、华中科技大学人权法律研究院主办的“疫情防控中的中西方人权观比较”国际视频研讨会召开。会议采取现场和网络相结合的形式,来自联合国人权高专办、联合国人权高专办驻几内亚办事处、奥地利、荷兰、英国、巴基斯坦、尼泊尔和中国等国家和地区的40余名人权专家、官员参加了线上研讨。联合国人权高专办驻几内亚代表帕特里斯·瓦哈德先生和联合国人权高专办官员什亚米·普维玛纳辛河博士和瓦拉达雷斯·瓦斯康塞洛斯·内托迭戈博士在”第三单元:人权文化多样性与团结合作抗击疫情“上作题为《为应对新冠疫情,需要重振人类团结、坚持以人为本的国际合作》的联合发言。

以对新冠肺炎的响应为契机恢复日渐衰退的人类团结并坚持以人为本的国际合作

帕特里斯·瓦哈德博士(Dr PATRICE VAHARD)

女士们先生们,

  感谢汪习根教授的邀请,很荣幸能和联合国人权机构的同事们一道,参加这个由备受赞誉的学者组成的研讨会,就对新冠肺炎的响应对人权的贡献,以及反过来,人权对全球可持续应对这一流行病的贡献交换意见和看法。

  我很荣幸供职于联合国人权事务高级专员办事处,该部门负责促进和保护所有人的人权,包括向国家机构、民间社会组织及其他机构提供技术支持,促进将人权纳入各国政策、方案及活动。我们的支持旨在帮助各国全面满足和平、稳定与发展的基本需要和愿望。我也荣幸地以非洲人的身份向各位讲话,我见证了我们这个时代最伟大的契机,得以展示对人类价值和尊严的真实承诺。

  新冠肺炎疫情破坏了所有的卫生安全系统和应对能力,挑战全世界,要求我们跳出思维框架,千方百计,以平等的精神和态度来寻求可持续的解决方案。在这一框架内,必须重新思考文化权利,并通过重新评价不同文化的能力来加以利用。

  我现今在几内亚工作,我在这里向各位致意。这个美丽国度的人民在许多方面受益于与中国的合作,特别是在对新冠肺炎的响应方面。

  我想在这次谈话中传递一个简单的信息:对新冠肺炎的响应是捍卫发展权的机会,正如各位所知,发展权是一项不可剥夺的人权,根据这项权利,每个人和所有人民都有权参与、促进和享受经济、社会、文化和政治发展,籍此充分实现所有人权和基本自由。

  在新冠肺炎疫情扩散的背景下,数百万非洲民众对包括中国在内的几个国家对非洲学生、移民和青年的不公正待遇的报道感到无比愤慨。我相信,非洲大陆和中国的人权维护者都对这种情况和这些违背人类尊严和团结的行为甚为心痛。我们感到震惊,因为这些形象破坏了巩固和保持中非人民半个多世纪合作团结关系成果的任何机会,凸显了我们人性的最恶劣的一面。我看过新闻报道和官方对这些事件的反应。我同样对世界各地及非洲对中国人民的污名化和仇恨言论感到愤怒。可悲的是,在目前的新冠肺炎背景下,仇外心理已经在我们周围形成了势头,并很可能因虚假信息而助长势头。仇恨和仇外心理是合作与团结的对立面,不可接受,我想各位会认同我的这一看法。我们可以共同行动,结束这些错误做法。从现在这一时刻开始。如果任其发展,仇恨言论和仇外情绪必定会为民粹主义和排外主义提供借口。这些不当恶行对任何人、任何国家、任何个人都毫无益处。人权的倒退向我们发起了一个挑战,我们要克制情绪,重新团结起来,扭转人类团结和国际合作日益下降的趋势,去造福人类。我欣喜地看到,本次研讨会即追求这一目标。

  作为一名联合国官员,我建议我们从联合国关于人权在应对这一流行病中的中心地位的立场中汲取灵感, 以确保随着世界的复苏,人权的中心地位将在《联合国宪章》规定的人类价值和尊严的基础上得以恢复重建。

  作为一个非洲人,我将诉诸前辈的价值观,这一价值观来自于第一个已知的人权条约,即13世纪的《库鲁坎-福加宪章》,该宪章表达了同样的信息。这项人权及国际人道主义法律文书将团结与合作放在首位,作为保护和尊重最脆弱的个人或群体权利的支柱。在我们的文化遗产中,我们所受的教育,旨在让我们成为“人性”社会理念的典范。非洲人性观念  传达了这样一个理念,即个人权利可以而且应该在社区凝聚力中得以实现,而不能以牺牲群体利益为代价来实现。人性观念解释了这样一个理念:非洲人属于他/她的社区,不可在这个现实之外定义。人性观念还包含这样一个理念:群体的生活、福利和完整性是以“积极参与”为条件的,旨在尊重和促进组成团体的个人的权利。根据这一概念,我们必须以对人类福祉的贡献来衡量我们在社会中的价值和地位,我们不仅要以成文法为指导,还要以我们的社会责任为指导。比如,在这种情况下,真正的男人不会强奸或虐待妇女;他会保护她们并确保所有人的福祉。女人并不比男人逊色,并不是男人的奴仆,而是在维持家庭和群体中扮演特定角色、享有权利并承担责任的伴侣。她被培养成人,成为影响社会事务的调解人、管理者和决策者。领袖是服务者,而不是通过恐惧和恐怖来统治人民的压迫者。我承认,如今,这些价值观已经沦落为荣光过往,成为非洲扭曲而残破不全的历史的一部分,而野蛮的非人道做法似乎也经历了时间的考验。非洲价值体系的大部分也受到了从殖民地继承下来的新的思维、行为和行为方式的侵蚀,或是在家庭和公共领域表现出管理不善和缺乏领导。有时,由于上述所有因素的综合影响,我们未能从非洲价值体系中汲取灵感。我对中华文明的有限而不同的了解让我感觉到,你们也在努力从排斥和剥夺的邪恶中恢复过来,你们也将享受并继续享受着平等和团结的益处。我认为,对新冠肺炎的响应是个范式转变的机会,这一机会将让我们接受人类尊严和文化多样性的普遍主义,并将其作为我们应该培育的财富;而决不可对此不予重视。

  我向各位提议,重新评估在身份排斥和不平等现象日益增多的背景下,技术和科学突破所带来的人权的发展。我将邀请中国学者参加关于人权在本质和目的方面有普遍性的思想之战。

  中国除了与多个国家和大陆进行全面富有成果的合作之外,还特别强调在南南合作框架内与非洲在推进人权方面的合作。

  为此,我有以下建议,以便我们以对新冠肺炎的响应为契机,促进世界更为人道。

  1. 首先,我们更迫切地需要共同行动,对抗仇恨情绪及虚假信息。这两个恶魔构成了阻止控制新冠肺炎的扩散并最终战胜疫情的主要障碍。

  2. 把来自非洲国家和中国的学生、教师、基层社区协会、研究人员、记者和人权机构聚集在一起相互学习是可行的,也是可取的;可以改变观念和现实,共同行动,反对任何形式的污名化或歧视。

  3. 这种方式同样适用于企业界的合作,以便在非洲的中国公司和与中国合作的非洲公司有效地有助于减少不平等,促进问责制,并团结一致,反对任何形式的歧视和其他形式的剥夺最弱势群体权利的行为。
我们还可以一起做以下工作:

  4. 加强对政府、市议会和地方社区、妇女、青年和宗教领袖的咨询和宣传工作,反对对外国人及与我们不同的人的污名化、仇恨和歧视。

  5. 给予所有人权同等重视,因为推动我们的发展模式,并在这种模式下充分实现经济、社会和文化权利,不能以牺牲一个安全和包容的公民空间为代价。

  6. 通过正式和非正式的人权教育方案,帮助儿童、青年、男子和妇女将人类尊严和价值观的理想内化。此类大学交流项目和研讨会只是一部分有效的做法。

  7. 我提请各位代表人权的普遍性以及我们所支持的价值观和理想。去讲我们不实践的东西是没有意义的。我们必须成为典范,去推动以人类福祉为中心的人类团结与合作。

  因为,正如我们所看到的那样,新冠肺炎不分种族、不分性别、不分财富,我认为,没有比对新冠肺炎做出响应并从疫情中恢复过来是一个最伟大的契机,让我们来体验人权的多样性和统一性。

  谢谢各位的聆听。

RESPONSE TO COVID-19 AN OPPORTUNITY TO RECLAIM DECLINING HUMAN SOLIDARITY AND UPHOLD HUMAN CENTERED INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

REMARKS BY Dr PATRICE VAHARD

Ladies and gentlemen,

I thank Professor WANG Xigen for inviting me and I have the honor, together with my colleagues from UN Human Rights to join this panel of acclaimed scholars to exchange views and opinion on the contribution of both the response to COVID-19 to human rights and on the reverse, human rights contribution to a sustainable global response to this pandemic.

I am privileged to work for the United Nations, in the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the department responsible for the promotion and protection of the human rights of all, including through technical support to State institutions, civil society organizations and other actors for the integration of human rights into their policies, programmes and activities. Our support aimed at helping them to meet their basic needs and aspirations for peace, stability and development in a comprehensive manner. I am also honoured to address you as an African, witnessing the greatest opportunity of our time to demonstrate the authenticity of his commitment to human worth and dignity.

By undermining all health security systems and response capacities, the COVID-19 pandemic challenges the world to think outside the box, to rake every corner and shake every stone in the search for sustainable solutions in a spirit and perspective of equality. Within this framework, cultural rights will have to be rethought and put to use by revaluing the genius of different cultures.

I greet you from Guinea, where I am currently working. The people of this beautiful country benefit in many ways from cooperation with China, particularly in the context of the response to COVID-19.

I have come to this conversation with a simple message: The response to COVID-19 is an opportunity to defend the right to development, which, as you know, an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized. 

In the context of the spread of COVID-19, millions of Africans have been outraged by reports of mistreatment of African students, migrants and youths in several countries, including China. Human rights defenders on the continent and, I believe, in China too, were deeply saddened by this situation and these acts contrary to human dignity and solidarity. We were appalled because these images undermine any chance of consolidating and sustaining the gains of more than half a century of relations of cooperation and solidarity between the Chinese and African peoples, and highlight the worst of our human nature. I have read the news reports and official reactions to these incidents. I am equally outraged by the stigmatization and hate speech against Chinese peoples in several parts of the world and in Africa. Sadly, xenophobia has gained momentum around us in the present context of COVID-19 and maybe be fuelled by misinformation. You will agree with me that hatred and xenophobia are the opposite of cooperation and solidarity and unacceptable. We can act together to end them. The time is now. If left unchecked, hate speeches and xenophobic reactions certainly give pretext to populism and nativism. These unfortunate evils benefit no one; no nation, no individual. A push back on human rights presents us with the challenge of rising above emotions and re-unite to reverse the declining trends on human solidarity and international cooperation for the benefit of humanity. I am pleased to see that this seminar pursues this goal.

As a United Nations official, I suggest that we draw inspiration from the United Nations position on the centrality of human rights in any response to this pandemic.  This will ensure that, as the world recovers, its builds back on the foundations of human worth and dignity laid out in the UN Charter.

As an African, I will appeal to my ancestral values drawn from the first known human rights treaty, the XIIIth century Kurukan Fouga Charter, which evokes this same message. This instrument of human rights and international humanitarian law gives primacy to solidarity and cooperation as pillars of protection and respect for the rights of the most vulnerable individual or group. In my cultural heritage, we are educated to be an embodiment of the social concept of Ubuntu. The African concept of ubuntu  conveys the notion that individual rights can and should be realised within the communal cohesion and not at the expense of the group. Ubuntu translates the notion that the African is a person that belongs to his/her community and is not defined outside of this reality. Ubuntu also implies that the life, welfare, and integrity of the group are conditioned by ‘active participation’, which is the respect and promotion of the rights of the individuals constituting it. According to this concept, we must measure our value and place in society against our contribution to the well-being of our fellow human beings and be guided not only by written laws, but also by our social responsibilities. In this context for example, a real man does not rape or abuse women; he protects them and ensures the well-being of all. The woman is not inferior of slave to a man; but a partner with specific roles, rights and responsibilities in the up keeping of the family and the group. She is raised to serve as peacemaker, manager and decision-maker in matters affecting society. The leader is the servant, not the oppressor who rules through fear and terror. Today, I admit that these values have been relegated to the glorious parts of Africa’s distorted and under documented history while the barbaric dehumanising practices seem to resist the test of time. Most of the African value system has also been eroded by either the new way of thinking, acting and behaving inherited from colonization, or poor governance and lack of leadership manifested in families and homes as well as in the public sphere. At times, failing to draw inspiration from African value systems emanate from the combination of all of the above. My limited and distant knowledge of Chinese civilization suggests that you too have enjoyed and continue to enjoy the benefits of equity and solidarity as you strive to heal from the evils of exclusion and deprivation. I submit that the Response to COVID-19 is an opportunity for a paradigm shift that will enable us to embrace the universalism of human dignity and cultural diversity as the wealth we should nurture; and never take for granted.

I will challenge the audience to reassess the advancement of humanity as seen in technological and scientific breakthrough against the backdrop of rising identity based exclusion and inequities. I will invite Chinese scholars to join the battle of ideas about human rights as universal in nature and purpose.

In addition to China's comprehensive and fruitful cooperation with several countries and continents, special emphasis be placed on cooperation with Africa in advancing human rights in the framework of South-South cooperation.

To this end, I have the following suggestions - to enable us to transform the response to COVID-19 into an opportunity to promote a more humane world.

1. To begin, it is more than urgent that we act together to combat hatred and misinformation. These two evils constitute the main obstacles to stopping the spread of COVID-19 and eventually defeating it.

2. It is possible and desirable to bring together students, teachers, grassroots community associations, researchers, journalists and human rights institutions from African countries and China to learn from each other; to change perceptions and realities and to act together against any form of stigmatization or discrimination.

3. The same applies to cooperation in the corporate world so that Chinese companies in Africa and those from Africa cooperating with China effectively contribute to reducing inequalities, promoting accountability and stand in unity against any form of discrimination and other forms of denial of the rights of the most vulnerable populations.

Together we can also do the followings: 

4. Intensify counselling and advocacy with governments, city councils and local communities, women, youth and religious leaders to stand against stigmatisation, hatred and discrimination against foreigners and those who are different from us.

5. Give equal attention to all human rights because advancing our work on a model of development in which economic, social and cultural rights are fully realized cannot be at the expense of a safe and inclusive civic space.

6. Help children, young people, men and women to internalize the ideals of human dignity and values through formal and informal human rights education programmes. University exchange programmes and seminars of this kind are only some of the ways forward.

7. I invite us to embody the universalism of human rights and the values and ideals we stand for. There is no point in lecturing about what we do not practice. We must be models of human solidarity and cooperation centred on the well-being of the human person.

Because, as we see, COVID-19 does not discriminate between races, genders and wealth, I would argue that there has been no greater opportunity than the response to and recovery from COVID-19 to experience the unity of our humanity in its diversity.

Thank you for listening to me.


分享:
收藏 复制 打印