穆沙希德·侯赛因·赛义德:抗击新冠疫情和人权保护中的全球合作:对集体途径的需要 - 第二单元:人权保障与抗击新冠疫情 - 中国人权网

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穆沙希德·侯赛因·赛义德:抗击新冠疫情和人权保护中的全球合作:对集体途径的需要

2020-06-02 15:02:31来源:中国人权网

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巴基斯坦参议院(议会上院)外事委员会主席、巴中友好协会主席穆沙希德·侯赛因·赛义德先生(网络会议视频截图)

  2020年5月30日下午,由中国人权研究会指导、华中科技大学人权法律研究院主办的“疫情防控中的中西方人权观比较”国际视频研讨会召开。会议采取现场和网络相结合的形式,来自联合国人权高专办、联合国人权高专办驻几内亚办事处、奥地利、荷兰、英国、巴基斯坦、尼泊尔和中国等国家和地区的40余名人权专家、官员参加了线上研讨。巴基斯坦参议院(议会上院)外事委员会主席、巴中友好协会主席穆沙希德·侯赛因·赛义德先生在”第二单元:人权保障与抗击新冠疫情“上作题为《抗击新冠疫情和人权保护中的全球合作:对集体途径的需要》的发言。

全球合作共同应对新冠肺炎与人权保护:需要集中力量

穆沙希德·侯赛因议员,巴基斯坦外事委员会主席,巴中学会主席

  感谢邀请我来参加本次研讨会,本次内容与当前全球局势密切相关,我期待迎来一场富有成效的讨论。我的陈述将包含三部分内容。首先是关于人权问题,以及该问题对于发展中国家的意义。其次,是在对抗新冠肺炎时面临的挑战,以及该如何做才能克服这些挑战。第三,就是疾病流行的地缘政治,以及试图对这一疾病进行妖魔化和谴责的行为,鉴于这些都阻碍了全球合作共同对抗新冠肺炎。

  人权已经成为重中之重的问题。这包括生存、体面生活以及发展并为当代与后代创造更好生活的权利。因此,针对这方面,华中科技大学人权法律研究院的倡议最为及时也最受欢迎,该倡议主要针对冠状病毒所带来的全球挑战局势下的人权,以及如何共同战胜冠状病毒。亚洲、非洲和拉丁美洲等第三世界国家的“南方”与欧洲和北美等“北方”人群的生活相较而言,生活品质不同、生活发展不均。尽管存在这些区别,但总体而言,实际上亚洲国家,尤其是中国,与大多数西方国家,尤其是美国和某些欧洲国家相比,在应对新冠肺炎疫情方面更为成功也更有成效。

  新冠肺炎拉大了发展中世界与发达世界现有的经济差距。经济下滑,数百万人失业。例如,2017年英国慈善机构牛津饥荒救济委员会的调查显示,世界上最富有的8个人所拥有的财富,比世界上一半最穷人口的财富还多,也就是35亿人口。根据美国杂志《福布斯》近期调查,“超级富豪”,即世界上最富有的25名亿万富翁,仅在近两个月中,就获得了2550亿美元的巨额财富!这种生活品质的不均,不仅反映在不同区域、国家和社会之间,也反映在不同阶级和社会群体之间。而且,这也是21世纪的现实。最令人不安的是,人权同样沦为了地缘政治的工具,被某些西方国家利用,作为政治武器进行谴责和妖魔化,并以此干涉他国内政。

  因此,人权政治需要与发展权和追逐最适合每个国家发展选择的权利分开。让我以我自己的国家为例,巴基斯坦是中国的邻居和好伙伴。我们在巴基斯坦能感受到,中国具有里程碑意义的“一带一路”倡议是获得发展权的重要举措。“一带一路”倡议无疑是21世纪最有效的外交和发展倡议。如今,已有117个国家通过贸易和文化的走廊连接,由经济、能源、港口和管道、道路及铁路驱动。到目前为止,“一带一路”倡议的6条走廊中,最成功且发展迅速的走廊就是中巴经济走廊。

  对巴基斯坦来说,中巴经济走廊意义重大,该走廊延伸至能源、基础设施、工业发展、社会经济改善、促进区域贸易连通的瓜达尔港口以及经济特区等领域,提升了2亿2000万巴基斯坦人民的发展权。中巴经济走廊还减缓了巴基斯坦的长期能源危机,提供了33%的巴基斯塔能源需求,为75000名巴基斯坦人民提供了就业。瓜达尔港口正在成为区域连通的中心,而基础设施工程也加速了巴基斯坦的内部连通。目前有28000名巴基斯坦人民在中国学习。

  发展权是探索建立更好未来的综合成分,而正如南北差异,甚至在这些国家和社会中,发展都可能不均。因此,在这样的形势下,中巴经济走廊帮助建立了更加平衡、包容且全面的发展,尤其是在巴基斯坦的这些过去被忽视或未能触及的区域和地区。所以,通过促进连通,包括通过道路、铁路和其他交通方式,以及通过贸易和商业,发展权具有很大帮助。

  因此,在当今世界,面对全球疫情的解决办法应该是打破阻碍,而非堆砌恐惧的壁垒。在这方面,“一带一路”倡议是全球化的最大催化剂,因为中国为全球发展贡献了30%的力量。在推动“一带一路”倡议时,双赢合作的重要部分就是需要打破保护主义的障碍或恐惧和排外的壁垒,不仅促进自由和公平的商品和服务交易,还要提升知识、学识和思想。“一带一路”倡议的妖魔化只会因此适得其反。在2017年1月的达沃斯世界经济论坛上,习近平主席在讲话中表示,支持保护主义的人就如同“把自己关进黑屋子”,闭上了眼、封闭了心,这种态度就好比20世纪冷战的心态,在21世纪是站不住脚的。

  其次,关于新冠病毒的问题,对其存在的分歧以及我们目前从危机中学到的东西实际上已经动摇并改变了世界。有三条经验教训颇具教育意义。

  第一,冠状病毒是一个无国界的“敌人”,不分国籍、种族或阶级,因此,需要在联合国和世界卫生组织的领导下,通过全球合作集体面对这一共同挑战。任何试图指责或妖魔化任何国家、团体或民族的行为都是错误的,这样只会产生反作用,因为这些都是源于偏执和种族歧视,是不会被接受的。

  第二,亚洲国家比多数其他西方国家都履行得更好,这也表明了领导阶层、医疗健康管理品质、明确的政策以及以人为中心的包容性措施是如何带来有效结果的。中国、韩国和新加坡都是对抗新冠病毒的成功案例。

  第三,是时候让国家重新设定优先权和政策,并重新定义国家安全的概念了,使“人类安全”享有最高优先级,将重心放在医疗保健、教育、人力资源发展、环境和气候变化,以绿色发展作为前行之路,避免依赖矿物燃料,建造可再生能源。这关乎拯救行星地球和保护我们人类。我们非常清楚:冠状病毒的突然打击,是一次使人惭愧的经历,而我们现在意识到,即使最先进的国家也有无法掌控的力量,即使最发达的医学和高科技也有无法解决的事物。虽然人类试图驯服自然,但没有人能为了达到个人目的而真正驯服和改变自然,因为自然的力量至高无上。我们还在寻找新冠肺炎的疫苗和药物,但就目前而言,预防就是对策。

  在这种局势下,很不幸,在某些西方国家,尤其是美国,似乎渴望将疫情作为武器实现“批判中国”的政治追击。2020年5月24日,中国外交部长王毅适时反驳称:“美国一些政治势力正在绑架中美关系,并将两国推向新冷战的边缘”,强调美国似乎感染了一种“政治病毒”!

  美国权威刊物主编法里德·扎卡瑞亚在近期的一篇文章中也证实了这一观点,在2020年1月-2月刊《外交》杂志中,这位颇具影响力的作者表示:“华盛顿的新舆论认为,无论在经济上还是战略上,现在中国就是美国的致命威胁”,尽管作者在开始添加了自己的观点,表示“美国正在为失败付出昂贵代价”!有些政治主战分子和美国军事机构正在寻找新“敌人”,因为其强大的军事工业群体需要为财务和政治支持进行海外驻军和运作寻找新理由。

  对抗新冷战或者人权或新冠肺炎的政治武器化是应对灾难的秘方。新冠肺炎的挑战巨大,没有任何国家或大陆可以独自应对。坚持所有不可剥夺的权利迎接无病未来,建立权利的两大支柱取得和平繁荣的生活,所有国家必须在联合国和世界卫生组织的领导下,集中力量对抗新冠肺炎这一共同敌人,这样危机才能在全球合作下尽早攻克。这是苦难中人类的唯一前进之路。谢谢。

Global Cooperation in Fighting COVID-19 & Human Rights Protection: Need for a Collective Approach

Senator Mushahid Hussain, Chairman, Senate Foreign Affairs Committee and Chairman, Pakistan-China Institute

Thank you for inviting me to this Seminar which has great relevance in the current global context. I look forward to a fruitful discussion. My presentation would be in three parts. First, on the issue of Human Rights and what it means for developing countries. Second, the challenge of combating COVID-19 and what needs to be done to overcome that challenge. Third, the geopolitics of the pandemic, and attempts at demonisation and stigmatisation, since these retard global cooperation to confront COVID-19.

Human Rights has become an issue of paramount importance.  These include right to life, the right to a decent living as well as the right to development to build a better future for the generation of today and tomorrow.  The Huazhong University Institute of Human Rights Law’s initiative, therefore, in this regard is most timely and welcoming as it focuses on human rights in the context of the global challenge of Coronavirus and how to combat it collectively. There is a wide disparity between the quality of life and uneven development between people living in the “South”, i.e. the Third World countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America as compared to people living in the “North”, i.e., Europe and North America. Despite this disparity, it is a fact that Asian countries, generally, and China, in particular, have combated COVID-19 more successfully and more effectively, rather than, say, most Western countries, particularly the United States and some European states too.

COVID-19 has widened the already existing economic disparities between the developing and the developed world. Economies have shrunk and millions are unemployed. For instance, a study by the British charity, OXFAM, in 2017 stated that 8 of the world’s richest men had more wealth than half of the world’s poorest population, meaning, about 3.5 billion people. According to a recent survey of the US magazine, FORBES,  ‘super rich’, the world’s 25 richest billionaires have gained in wealth a whopping  $ 255 billion within the last two months alone!  This uneven quality of life is reflected, not only between regions, countries and societies, as well as classes and social groups but this is also a reality of the 21st Century. What is disturbing is that human rights has also become an instrument of geopolitics, used by some in the West as a political weapon to stigmatise and demonise and to interfere in internal affairs of other countries.

The politics of Human Rights, therefore, needs to be separated from the right to development and the right to pursue development choices best suited to each country. Let me give you the example of my country, Pakistan, which is a neighbour and good friend of China. We in Pakistan feel that China’s landmark Belt & Road Initiative (BRI) is an important step to achieve this right of development.  The BRI is undoubtedly the most significant diplomatic and developmental initiative of the 21st Century.  It now includes 117 countries who are being linked through corridors of commerce and culture, driven by economy, energy, ports and pipelines, roads and railways.  Of the 6 corridors of BRI, by far,  the most successful and fast developing of all of the corridors of BRI is the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

For Pakistan, the CPEC has significance since it is promoting the right of development for the 220 million people of Pakistan as this corridor extends to areas like energy, infrastructure, industrial development, socio-economic betterment, Gwadar Port to promote regional trade connectivity and Special Economic Zones. It has already alleviated Pakistan’s chronic energy crisis, providing 33% of Pakistan’s energy needs, CPEC has given gainful employment to 75,000 Pakistanis, the Gwadar Port is becoming a hub of regional connectivity and infrastructure projects have facilitated faster connectivity within Pakistan, while 28,000 Pakistanis now study in China.
           
The right to development is an integrated component of the quest to build a better tomorrow and like the North-South divide, even within these countries and societies, development can be uneven.  Therefore, in this context, CPEC is helping to promote a more balanced, inclusive and all around development, especially in those areas and geographical regions of Pakistan which are either neglected or left beyond in the past, so this right to development is helping to a great extent by promoting connectivity, either through roads, rails and other means of transportation but also through trade and commerce.

Therefore, in today’s world, while facing a global pandemic, breaking barriers is the answer, not building walls of fear. In this regard, the BRI is the biggest promoter of globalisation, as China fuels 30% of global growth.  In pushing for BRI, an important ingredient of win win cooperation is the need to break down barriers of protectionism, or walls  of fear and xenophobia and promote not just the free and fair exchange of goods and services but of knowledge, learning and ideas as well. The demonisation of BRI is therefore counterproductive. In his speech to the World Economic Forum in Davos in January 2017, President Xi Jinping said that those who support protectionism are like “a person who is locked in a dark room” with eyes shut and a closed mind, an attitude, like the Cold War mentality of the 20th Century, which has no place in the 21st Century.

Second, the issue of COVID-19, its ramifications and what have we learnt so far from a crisis that has shaken, indeed, transformed the world. Three lessons are instructive.

First, Coronavirus is a borderless ‘enemy’, with no nationality, race, religion or class, hence it is a common challenge that needs to be met collectively through global cooperation, led by the UN and the WHO. Any attempt to stigmatise or demonise any one country or community or nationality is wrong and counter-productive, as it stems from bigotry and racism, which are unacceptable.

Second, Asian countries have performed better than most countries of the West, and this is an indication of how leadership, quality of healthcare governance, clarity of policies and an inclusive, people-centric approach can deliver results. China, South Korea, Singapore, are some good examples of success stories in combating COVID-19.

Third, the time has come for countries to reset their priorities and policies and redefine the notion of national security, making ‘human security’ as their top priority, focusing on healthcare, education, human resource development, environment and climate change, with Green Development as the way forward, eschewing reliance on fossil fuels, and building on renewable energy. It’s about saving Planet Earth and protecting our people. Let us be very clear: Coronavirus, which struck suddenly, has been a humbling experience as we now realise that there are forces which are beyond the control of even the most advanced states and there are still things which even the most developed medical science and high technology have yet to figure out. While mankind tries to tame Nature, but nobody can truly tame and transform Nature for their own purposes, as the power of Nature is paramount. We are still looking for a vaccine, for a cure, for COVID-19, as right now, prevention is the cure.

Given this context, it is sad and unfortunate that some in the West, notably, the United States, seem keen to weaponise the pandemic for political pursuits of ‘China-bashing’, as they do on Human Rights as well. On May 24, 2020, China’s Foreign Minister Wang Yi rightly retorted that ‘some political forces in the US are taking Pakistan-China relations hostage and pushing our two countries to the brink of a new Cold War’, underlining that the US seems to be infected by a ‘political virus’!

This view is corroborated by a recent article by author Fareed Zakaria in the prestigious American journal, ‘Foreign Affairs’, January-February 2020 issue, in which the influential writer states: ‘a new consensus in Washington holds that China is now a vital threat to the United States, both economically and strategically’, although the writer adds in his own words that embarking on this course the ‘US is setting itself up for an expensive failure’! Some political hawks and US military establishment are looking for a new ‘enemy’ as the powerful military-industrial-complex seeks a new justification for financial and political support for its overseas presence and operations.

Fighting a new Cold War or politically weaponising of Human Rights or COVID-19 is a recipe for disaster. The challenge of COVID-19 is so huge that no one country or continent alone can meet it on their own. Upholding the inalienable right of all for a disease-free future, erected on the twin pillars of the right to a peaceful and prosperous life, all countries must collectively combat the common enemy of COVID-19, with the UN and WHO in the lead, so the crisis is overcome in the shortest possible time through global cooperation. That is the only way forward for suffering humanity. Thank you.


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