格尔德·卡明斯基:新冠疫情时期的黄祸幽灵的复活和侵犯中国及中国个人权利的年代记 - 第一单元:人权价值观与抗击新冠疫情 - 中国人权网

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格尔德·卡明斯基:新冠疫情时期的黄祸幽灵的复活和侵犯中国及中国个人权利的年代记

2020-06-01 17:01:01来源:中国人权网

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奥中友协常务副主席、奥地利中国及东南亚问题研究所所长、华中科技大学人权法律研究院欧洲研究中心主任格尔德·卡明斯基教授(网络会议视频截图)

  2020年5月30日下午,由中国人权研究会指导、华中科技大学人权法律研究院主办的“疫情防控中的中西方人权观比较”国际视频研讨会召开。会议采取现场和网络相结合的形式,来自联合国人权高专办、联合国人权高专办驻几内亚办事处、奥地利、荷兰、英国、巴基斯坦、尼泊尔和中国等国家和地区的40余名人权专家、官员参加了线上研讨。奥中友协常务副主席、奥地利中国及东南亚问题研究所所长、华中科技大学人权法律研究院欧洲研究中心主任格尔德·卡明斯基教授在”第一单元:人权价值观与抗击新冠疫情“上作题为《新冠疫情时期的黄祸幽灵的复活和侵犯中国及中国个人权利的年代记》的发言。

新冠疫情时期的黄祸幽灵的复活和侵犯中国及中国个人权利的年代记

格尔德·卡明斯基(Gerd Kaminski)

  1839年,在中国皇帝的旨令下,广州的钦差大臣林则徐要求英国禁止大量贩卖鸦片,毒害中国人民。鸦片战争后,中国被迫割让香港,并开放了六个港口。

  1858年,英国又以国旗受到侮辱为借口,发动了第二次鸦片战争,无耻地违反了国际法。两广总督叶名琛被非法逮捕,后在加尔各答监狱中死去。

  西方国际社会所珍视的平等原则在涉及中国时遭到否定。正如美国驻华大使罗斯·布朗(Ross Brown)1869年提出的那样:“我们应该努力把中国人的文明程度提高到我们的标准,因为我相信我们的文明优于他们的文明。但是,我们绝不能无条件地接受他们对基督教国家独立的要求。”

  同样地,与此同时,霍尔(Hall)、奥本海姆(Oppenheim)、韦斯特莱克(Westlake)、何兰(Holland)、德斯巴涅(Despagnet)、邦斯菲尔斯(Bonsfils)、马滕斯(Martens)、李斯特(Liszt)、克劳埃尔·尤尼索诺(Krauel Unisono)等西方著名国际法学者都表示,国际法的一般原则不能适用于中国。

  在19世纪70年代的美国,对中国经济和中国人的恐惧开始显露出其丑陋的一面。在铁路建设和矿山中被剥削的中国移民,受到越来越多的歧视和迫害。1855年,怀俄明州发生了针对中国矿工的大屠杀。而对中国商人和手工业者的屠杀也在其他时间和地点发生。1882年,美国总统切斯特·艾伦·阿瑟(Chester A. Arthur)签署了执行长达61年的《排华法案》。当时反对华裔居民的口号是:“廉价劳力、白人废弃、疾病、无德和污秽。”

  面对华裔人口的增长——在加州华裔人口已占10%——美国种族主义者制造了另一种黄祸论:“中国男人将接管我们的白人妇女。”(P.W. Dooner,《共和国的最后日子》,1880年)。

  中国人会像蚂蚁一样,蔓延到全世界——这样假想出来的危险,也成为许多人著作中诽谤性的预言,如俄国人V·P·瓦西尔古(V.P. Wassiljew)、亚历山大·布洛克(Alexander Blok)、米希尔·巴库宁(Michail Bakunin),以及法国伯爵亚瑟·戈比诺(Arthur Gobineau)。

  “黄祸”一词是1895年德国皇帝威廉二世在看到日本侵华战争后发明的,最初针对的是日本。这种污名在义和团运动时期传到了中国人的头上。事实上,西方的坚船利炮通过占领天津附近的大沽堡发动了战争。中国随后宣战。中方根据国际法,要求敌国外交官离开北京前往天津,且他们还受到皇家军队的保护。奥地利代办罗斯通(Rosthorn)提议服从,但被其上级大使拒绝。西方的联军以国际法和人道主义的名义出发。在公开挑战所有具有约束力的国际法规则时,威廉皇帝告诉其军队,不要放过任何人,不要保留俘虏。联军的入侵造成了难以想象的暴行和侵犯人权的行为。俄国士兵迫使中国普通民众走在他们前面,以让其引爆地雷。

  然而,“黄祸”的污名最终却落在了中国人的头上,尽管中国在实践西方制定国际法的过程中遭遇了种种不幸。

  1919年,尽管中国是一战战胜国之一,但由于其他盟国之间的秘密条约,中国不得不将青岛的德租界割让给日本。

  1931年,在没有得到国际联盟任何有效帮助的情况下,中国将满洲割让给日本。

  20世纪50年代到60年代,由于三分之二多数席位的规则诡计,北京政府在联合国的合法席位被剥夺了。

  在50年代,“黄祸”又变成了“红色黄祸”。世纪之交,当中国从为其他国家制造商品转向高科技领域时,其又在经济竞争和军备竞赛中再次被称为“黄祸”。

  “黄祸”论的最近一个模仿者即是美国总统特朗普及其追随者。他们创造了“中国病毒”和“武汉病毒”的说法。

  取消文化大革命中对无产阶级和资产阶级人权的分裂,这是邓小平的功绩。他推动在中国各地建立人权研究中心,并与许多国家就人权问题进行学术交流。中国人权研究会和华中科技大学人权法律研究院就是其中突出的例子。

  在19世纪和20世纪,西方列强把自己的国际法概念强加给中国,而自己却并没有遵守最基本的规则。我不禁自问,为什么在20世纪和21世纪不断说教的某些国家,在新冠疫情期间以最明目张胆的方式不断向中国鼓吹人权,却又扰乱着中国人民的人权。王希根教授在《光明日报》和《中国日报》上发表的文章很好地指出了问题的严重性和范围。

  1912年1月1日,孙中山宣布中华民国成立。1949年10月1日,毛泽东宣布中华人民共和国成立。他们都表示中国愿在国际大家庭中成为平等的一员,不愿再受屈辱。习近平总书记也在他的中国梦阐述中呼吁世界对中国的尊严予以尊重。

  考虑到所谓“中国黄祸”的历史及其他危险污名,政客们最好以一种负责任的方式来对待这些表述。


The Revival of the Yellow Peril Spectre at Times of Corona and the Chronicle of the Violations of the Rights of China and Chinese Individuals

Gerd Kaminski

In 1839 on order by the Chinese Emperor, Governor Lin Zexu in Canton asked England to abstain from poisoning the Chinese people by huge sales of opium. After the Opium War,China was forced to cede Hongkong and to open 6 ports.

1858 England in another shameless violation of international law started under pretext that the flag was insulted the second Opium War. Governor Ye Mingchen was illegally arrested and died in a prison in Calcutta.

The principle of equality cherished by the Western community of states was denied to China as it was put in 1869 by the American ambassador to China Ross Brown: “Believing our civilization be superior to theirs, we should endeavour to elevate the Chinese to our standard. But surely this can never be done by an unqualified acceptance of their claim to the independence of Christian states.”

Similarly, at the same time, all Western eminent scholars of international law like Hall,Oppenheim, Westlake, Holland, Despagnet, Bonsfils, Martens, Liszt, Krauel unisono expressed that the general principles of international law could not be applied to China.

In the USA in the 1870s the fear of a Chinese economic and physical peril started to show its ugly face. The Chinese immigrants which had been exploited at railway construction and in the mines suffered from increasing discrimination and persecution. 1855 in Wyoming there was a massacre of Chinese miners. Massacres of Chinese merchants and handicraftsmen happened at other times and other places. 1882 the American President Chester A. Arthur signed the “Chinese exclusion Act” which was lasting for long 61 years.The slogans against Chinese inhabitants were: “Cheap Labor, White Ruin, Diseases,Immorality and Filth.”

Facing the growth of the Chinese population – in California already 10% -- American racists created another Chinese peril: “Chinese men would take over our white women” (P.W.Dooner, “Last Days of the Republic”, 1880).

The bogus of a danger that Chinese like ants would spread all over the whole globe was also a slandering prognosis in books of Russians like V.P. Wassiljew, Alexander Blok,Michail Bakunin or the French Comte Arthur Gobineau.

The term “Yellow Peril” was invented in 1895 after the Japanese attack on China by the German Emperor William II and it was originally directed against Japan. The stigma was transferred to the Chinese during the time of the Boxer Rebellion. In fact, the Western forces had started the war by conquering the Dagu Fort near Tianjin. China’s declaration of war came later. The Chinese side in accordance with International Law asked the diplomats of the enemy countries to leave Beijing for Tianjin protected by the imperial army. The Austrian chargé d'affaires Rosthorn proposed to comply but was turned down by the senior ambassadors. The united forces set out in name of international law and humanity. In open challenge of all binding rules of international law Emperor William told his troops, when seeing them not to spare anybody, not to make prisoners. The intervention of the united forces caused unimaginable atrocities and violations of human rights. Russian soldiers forced Chinese civilians to advance in front of them in order to have the mines blown up.

Nevertheless, the stigma of “Yellow Peril” rested with the Chinese in spite of the unfortunate experiences China made with the practice of Western created International Law.

1919 although China was a member of the victorious alliance, China had to cede the German concession at Qingdao to Japan due to secret treaties among the other allies.

1931 China lost Manchuria to Japan without any effective help from the League of Nations.

In the 50th and the 60th by the trick of 2/3 majority the rightful seat of China in the United Nations has been denied to the Beijing government.

In the fifties the “Yellow Peril” changed into “Red Yellow Peril” and at the turn of the century when China turned from manufacturing for others to high tech it switched again to “YellowPeril” in terms of economic contest and arms race.

The last mimicry of “Yellow Peril” was to be created by Mr. Trump and company in form of“China Virus” and “Wuhan Virus”.

It was Deng Xiaoping's merit to abolish the division of cultural revolution of poletarian and bourgeois human rights. He promoted the establishment of human rights research centers all over China and academic exchanges on this subject with many countries. China Society for Human Rights Studies and Institute for Human Rights Law, Huazhong University of Science and Technology are prominent examples.

In the 90th and 20th centuries western foreign powers forced their concepts of international law on China without themselves complying with the most basic of their own rules. I am asking myself, why certain states, which were preaching in the 20th and 21th centuries continously human rights to China at times of Corona Pademie in the most flagrant way are harrassing the human rights of the Chinese People. Gravity and scope have been very well
pointed out by Prof. Wang Xigen's articles in Guangming Daily and China Daily.

Sun Yatsen proclaiming the Republic on 01.01.1912, Mao proclaiming the People’s Republic on 01.10.1949, both expressed that China wants to be an equal member in the international family and does not want to be humiliated any more. President Xi Jinping in his Chinese Dream asked the world to respect China’s dignity.

Taking the history of the so-called Chinese Yellow and other Perils into consideration,politicians would be well advised to deal with such terms in a responsiblle way.


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