汤姆·布鲁克斯:气候变化与新冠疫情 - 第一单元:人权价值观与抗击新冠疫情 - 中国人权网

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汤姆·布鲁克斯:气候变化与新冠疫情

2020-06-01 14:57:57来源:中国人权网

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英国杜伦大学(Durham University),杜伦法学院院长汤姆·布鲁克斯(Thom Brook)教授(网络会议视频截图)
 
  2020年5月30日下午,由中国人权研究会指导、华中科技大学人权法律研究院主办的“疫情防控中的中西方人权观比较”国际视频研讨会召开。会议采取现场和网络相结合的形式,来自联合国人权高专办、联合国人权高专办驻几内亚办事处、奥地利、荷兰、英国、巴基斯坦、尼泊尔和中国等国家和地区的40余名人权专家、官员参加了线上研讨。英国杜伦大学(Durham University),杜伦法学院院长汤姆·布鲁克斯(Thom Brook)教授,在”第一单元:人权价值观与抗击新冠疫情“上作题为《气候变化与新冠疫情》的发言。

汤姆·布鲁克(Thom Brook)教授演讲提纲

杜伦大学(Durham University),杜伦法学院

  • 气候变化是非常严重的全球性问题,并在持续迅速发展,其主要由人类活动引起。

  • 气候变化会产生诸多危害。比如,太平洋岛国图瓦卢即将被海水淹没;短短一世纪内,迈阿密可能只能靠船只通行。所有国家都将受到气候变化的影响。

  • 由于各国都面临着海平面上升、干旱风险增加以及更多其他威胁,这些危害通常被视为人权侵犯。
• 新冠肺炎造成了许多改变。封锁防范措施导致了一些与公民自由相关的问题,在此我不多作讨论。但是封锁措施也使得排放量呈现显著减少的态势,许多人选择在家办公。

  • 有人说新冠病毒将“改变一切”:如果交通确实有所改变,那么这场可怕的疫情危机可能会同时促成有史以来最大程度的碳排放量减少。这一改变意义重大。病毒的作用之一居然是可能会减少由气候变化造成的人权侵犯事件的发生。

  • 但是,气候变化不仅在于地球变暖,还包括人类社会向新地区迁移等现象如何改变气候和环境。

  • 一些物种的生存因此被逼入绝境,动物向人类传播新病毒的风险增加,当下的病毒蔓延可能就正是这种情况。

  • 自疫情爆发流行以来,人们花费更多精力去保护地球,缓和了对自然的影响,也将会减少相关的危害。这应会成为疫情爆发的遗留影响。

  • 另一遗留影响则是通过封锁人类社会,使得人类更加尊重与自然的关系。

  • 新冠肺炎有可能会通过上述两种方式巩固人权,但其前提是需要我们更加认真履行应对气候变化的承诺。

  • (敬请留意今夏新书:《濒危世界的气候变化伦理》(Climate Change Ethics for an Endangered World),劳特利奇出版社)。

Prof Thom Brook's Speech Outline

Durham Law School, Durham University

• Climate change is a serious, global problem. It is happening, it is happening fast and it is primarily caused by human beings.

• Climate change has harmful affects. The pacific island country of Tuvalu is sinking under the ocean waves. Miami is likely to be accessible only by boat in 100 years. All countries will be affected.

• These harms are often thought about as human rights violations, as nations are threatened by either rising sea levels or greater risks of drought and more.

• Covid-19 has changed things. The lockdown has led to issues for some relating to civil liberties that I do not want to discuss here. But the lockdown also led to a significant reduction in emissions plus many learned to work from home.

• Some say this virus will "change everything" - if behaviours did change on transport, this terrible crisis could lead to some of the biggest reductions in carbon emissions perhaps ever. This would be of enormous importance. An effect of the virus could be to help a decline in human rights violations from climate change.

• But climate change is about more than a warming planet, but also how our climate - and environment - is changing, through ways like moving human communities into new areas.

• This pushes some species to the brink and risks spread of new diseases from animals to humans -- the current pandemic is already cited as such a possible case.

• Looking after our planet is something we've done better since the pandemic, this has reduced our impact and will also reduce associated harms. This should become one legacy of the outbreak.

• A second legacy is locking down human communities so we respect our relation to nature better.

• In both these ways, covid-19 could lead to enhancements of human rights - but if we take climate change commitments more seriously.

• (And note new book out this summer: Climate Change Ethics for an Endangered World with Routledge).


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