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瑞佛·胡斯塔德:疫情及其对挪威弱势群体的不同影响

2020-05-23 17:27:09来源:中国人权网

  由中国人权研究会指导,武汉大学人权研究院和奥斯陆城市大学社会工作系、日本立命馆大学生存学研究所、武汉东湖公益服务中心等机构合办的“疫情之下,没有孤岛——疫情防控中的特定群体权利保障”国际视频研讨会5月23日召开。来自中国、日本、英国、挪威、瑞典等国家和地区的20余名人权领域专家学者和社会组织代表参加研讨,100余人在线观摩。奥斯陆大学法学院,挪威人权研究中心研究人员瑞佛·胡斯塔德在”议题二 让每个人享受到公平正义:预防和救济针对特定群体的歧视”作题为《疫情及其对挪威弱势群体的不同影响》的发言,以下为发言摘要:

  发言摘要:

  新冠疫情通过诸多方式影响了挪威社会中的最弱势群体。与其他很多国家一样,挪威社会在3月13日经历了重大封锁,以控制病毒传播。这一前所未有的措施,导致志愿者和政府警力都必须在短时间内应对各种挑战。疫情防控措施可以揭露或强化社会不同群体之间的落差。这些措施看起来中立,不存在歧视的故意,但其可能对特定群体造成不合比例的负面影响。如果政府未能减轻这些负面影响,就可能上升到歧视的层面。本文将讨论防疫措施对下列弱势群体的不合比例的影响,减轻影响的相关举措,以及评论当前情形是否可被归类为歧视。

  • 移民没有获得足够的、无障碍的防疫信息;

  • 感染数据表明,移民受感染的数量高得不合比例,这导致了对移民的歧视看法;

  • 由于社交距离的限制,以及隔离、与社会网络的断裂导致更多的精神健康服务需求,精神健康服务受到了干扰;

  • 语言治疗受到了干扰,包括自闭儿童的语言疗法,其要求与治疗师有持续如常的当面联络;

  • 极度贫困的人,无家可归,无法再获得住宿收容和食物供给。此外,成瘾者也无法获得非法麻醉品的医疗替代品;

  • 相对贫困的人,收入较低,也受到超出比例的影响,无法在家远程工作,因此被停薪或解雇。

Abstract

The Covid-19 crisis has affected Norway’s most vulnerable groups in several ways. Like many other countries, Norwegian society came to an abrupt closure on 13 March to halt the spread of the virus. This unprecedented measure has resulted in challenges which both volunteers and government policy have attempted to address in a record short period of time. Pandemic measures can expose or amplify distinctions among various groups in society. While they may be neutral on their face and absent intent to discriminate, they can have a disproportionate adverse effect on a certain category of persons. This is a situation that rising to level of discrimination if the state fails to mitigate the disparate effects. The intervention will discuss the following disparate effects on vulnerable groups, the measures that have been taken to mitigate these effects, as well as observations as to whether the present situation can be classified as discrimination.

• Immigrants were not provided with sufficient and accessible information to avoid infection.

• Infection data is publicized showing that immigrants account for a disproportionate number of infections, leading to increased anti-immigrant viewpoints.

• Mental health treatment was interrupted by social distancing and additional mental health needs have arisen as a result of isolation and disconnect from social networks.

• Speech therapy services were interrupted, including for autistic children who require a consistent routine and face-to-face contact with the therapist.

• The extremely poor who are homeless were cut off from housing and food services. In addition, those with addiction issues were cut off from medicinal alternatives to illegal narcotics.

• The comparative poor with lower-wage jobs were disproportionately unable to work remotely from home and, as a result, were either furloughed or lost their employment. 

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瑞佛·胡斯塔德
River HUSTAD

  个人简介:

  瑞佛·胡斯塔德,现任挪威人权研究中心顾问,奥斯陆大学法学院教员。主要研究领域包括贫困与人权的关联、非歧视与性少数权利、发展权、法律理论、主权以及反恐。在多所大学有任教经验,包括挪威、中国、越南、美国、墨西哥的大学,以及挪威对外服务学院和多所国际研究机构。教育经历包括:法学博士(奥斯陆)、法律博士(美国)、人权法硕士(奥斯陆)、国际关系硕士(伦敦)、历史学士(美国)、工商管理学士(美国)。曾在美国从事民权和公益律师工作,拥有在美国联邦最高法院出庭资质,在多个联邦和州法域有执业资格,参与过100多起上诉案件。拥有美国、挪威双重国籍,在4个国家生活过。目前跟3个孩子一起住在挪威埃兹伏尔市的小农场。

Short bio

River Hustad, Presently an Advisor at the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo. Main fields of research are the nexus between poverty and human rights, nondiscrimination and LGBT rights, the right to development, legal theory, sovereignty, and counterterrorism.  Teaching experience at numerous universities in Norway, China, Vietnam, USA and Mexico, as well as the Norwegian Foreign Service Institute and various international institutions. Education includes a Ph.D. in law (Oslo), a J.D. in law (USA), M.A. in Human Rights Law (Oslo), M.A. in International Relations (London), B.A. in History (USA), and B.A. in Business Administration (USA).  Previously, was a practicing civil rights and public interest attorney in United States, licensed at the U.S. Supreme Court and various federal and state jurisdictions and having participated in more than 100 appellate cases.  A dual USA-Norwegian citizen who has lived in four countries. Presently lives on a small farm in Eidsvoll, Norway with three children. 


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