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德国的吉普赛人

2016-09-28 19:07:42   来源:中国人权网   作者:塞巴斯蒂安•舍尔

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德国汉堡大学教授 塞巴斯蒂安•舍尔  (赵一帆 摄)


德国的吉普赛人

  近500年来,吉普赛人-即罗姆人-生活的状态被马克斯•韦伯定义为贱民阶层。虽然统治阶级有时利用他们为军事或其他目的服务,但他们的历史是充满了来自社会的排斥和法律的压迫。在这样的背景下-包括夺去成千上万罗姆人性命的纳粹德国种族屠杀运动(吞灭)-在整个欧洲从人权的角度来审视这一少数族裔的发展,特别是在二战结束后的德国,是很有意义的。

  在德国,吉普赛人文化权利的一个焦点-重点关注他们的语言权-突显出政治联盟组织的重要性,如致力于自由解放的德国辛特人与罗姆人中央委员会。但同时也显露出在如此复杂的过程中需付出的代价以及存在的困难和局限。如:一方面有加深七万长期共处的德国辛特人与罗姆人之间隔阂的风险(最近被政府官方承认为少数民族的一支),同时那些为了躲避战争和/或邻国反吉普赛主义而进入德国的难民,数量未知,他们的生存空间将会变得更小。

  欧洲理事会(47个成员国)和欧盟(28个成员国)都立法对少数民族及成员的文化权利进行保护。欧洲理事会的欧洲人权公约明确地保护少数族裔不受歧视,设在斯特拉夫堡的欧洲人权法院一再重申对罗姆人特殊保护的必要性。卢森堡的欧盟法院担有类似职责并做出了一系列反歧视判决。

  本文旨在呈现并探讨一些法律文件(如:欧洲区域或少数族语言宪章)和近期司法判决的优缺点。
 

Cultural Human Rights Protection of Ethnic Minorities

Sebastian Scheerer

For half a millenium, gypsies - i.e. members of the Romani people - lived and suffered the fate of what Max Weber termed a pariah class. While powerholders could sometimes make use of them for military and other services, their history was mainly shaped by a combination of social rejection and legal repression. Against this background - including Nazi Germany’s genocidal campaign that cost the lives of hundreds of thousands members of the Romani people (Porajmos) - it is impressive to see the progress made in terms of human rights for this ethnic minority in all of Europe, and especially in Germany, since the end of World War II.

A focus on the cultural rights of gypsies in Germany - with special attention to their linguistic rights - underlines the importance of political umbrella organizations such as the Central Council of German Sinti and Roma in achieving emancipation. But it also reveals the costs and the remaining difficulties and shortcoming associated with such a complex process. One example is the risk of deepening the rift between the 70,000 long-established German Sinti and Roma on the one hand (recently recognized as a national minority by the government) and the lesser status of the unknown number of more recent newcomers who entered Germany as refugees from war and/or acute waves of antiziganism in neighboring countries.

Both the Council of Europe (with 47 member states) and the European Union (with 28 member states) have the legal instruments to protect the cultural rights of (members of) national minorities. The Council of Europe’s European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) explicitly aims to protect minorities from discrimination, and the European Court of Human Rights at Strasburg (ECtHR) has repeatedly stressed the necessity to give special protection to members of the Romani people. The European Union's Court of Justice (ECJ) in Luxemburg fulfills a similar role and has published a number of anti-discrimination judgments.

This paper aims to inform about and to open a critical discussion regarding the merits and shortcomings of some of the legal instruments (such as the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages) and recent decisions of the judicature.

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