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接引认同:少数民族司法干部培养与角色构建

2016-09-28 18:49:16   来源:中国人权网   作者:朱林方

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西南政法大学讲师 朱林方 (赵一帆 摄)


接引认同:少数民族司法干部培养与角色构建

  少数民族诉讼观念正在发生转变,越来越多的少数民族民众将争议提交国家司法程序解决,在某种程度上,这是国家法对少数民族习惯法的胜利,是国家司法审判较之于少数民族纠纷解决方式的胜利。但是,这也给司法带来了风险和挑战,因为,国家司法机器未必能够生产出符合少数民族民众预期的产品,如果司法审判生产出的不是其想要的“说法”,少数民族民众对司法与国家的认同可能反受其害。因此,关键的问题在于,如何促让少数民族当事人接受司法审判给出的结果。多元一体民族格局中的国民,民族认同往往表现为双重认同,人们离自己原属民族的距离相对较近,离共同国族的距离相对较远,在一个人的认同谱系中,对其原属民族的认同往往优先于并高于对共同国族的认同。而少数民族司法干部的特殊身份则赋予其拉近两种认同之间距离的接引者的角色。司法制度正是认识到了认同距离对纠纷解决的重要性,因而在相关问题上进行了变通。规定自治地方的人民法院和人民检察院的最高领导正副职位中一般要求至少有一个以上是实施民族区域自治的民族成员;当当事人为少数民族时,审判人员至少有一人应为少数民族;保证自治地方的少数民族公民使用本民族语言进行诉讼的权利。关于审判组织形式的这些特殊规定使得司法体系对民族法官产生了巨大的需求,国家与各民族自治地方采取了一系列措施解决民族司法干部短缺的难题。少数民族司法干部是少数民族地区、少数民族群体中经过选拔、培养的的优秀个体,少数民族司法干部培养政策的制定与实践,使这些个体成为国家司法权的代理人,履行民族地区纠纷解决的职责。少数民族司法干部与少数民族当事人之间的身份认同,减少了少数民族当事人接受国家司法权力及其产品的距离和障碍,进而认同国家这种公权力供给者在司法领域的支配现实和支配效果。由是,少数民族司法干部成为少数民族形成司法认同进而产生国家认同的接引者。
 

Escorts of Recognition:
The Training and Role Construction of the Minority Judicial Cadres

 ZhuLinfang

The concept of litigation of the minority is changing, which can be seen that more and more minority people submit the dispute to the national judicial process. In some way, it is the victory of the national law on minority customary law and the victory of the national judicial on the minority dispute resolution mode. However, it brings about risks and challenges to the judicial system since the judicial machine of a state may not be able to produce products in line with expectations of minority people. If the product of the judicial trial dose not conforms to their expectation, minority people’s approval on justice and national identity can become victims. Therefore, the point is how to make minority parties to accept the results given by justice. In the background of national integration of multi-ethnic pattern, national identity is often manifested in dual identity that the distance between people and their own ethnic origin is relatively close while the distance between them and the whole nation is relatively far away, that is to say, in recognition of a person's lineage, its origin ethnic identity often take precedence over and above the common national identity. The special status of minority judicial cadres is given its approval to narrow the distance between the two senses of recognition. It is because the judicial system is aware of the importance of recognition to the dispute resolution that changing on the related issues is necessary.  According to conventions the top leadership and deputy positions of people's courts and people's procuratorates the autonomous areas is generally required to have at least one member of the national implementation of the regional ethnic autonomy; when the party is minority, at least one member of the judicial officers should be minority; so as to ensure local autonomy minority citizens to use their native language in court proceedings. These special provisions on judicial organization make the judicial system in request of the national judges. As a result, the state and national autonomous areas adopt a series of measures to solve the shortage of national judicial cadres problems. Minority judicial cadres are outstanding individuals of ethnic minority areas through selection and training of. The formulating and practicing of the policy of training minority cadres makes these individuals become agents of the state judicial power to fulfill the duties to resolve disputes in minority areas. Sense of recognition between minority cadres and minority party reduces the distance and obstacles for minority parties to accept national judicial authority and its products, and thus a sense of recognition of the nation as a public power provider and its dominate reality and dominance effects in the field of justice. Therefore, the minority judicial cadres become escorts for minority to form judicial identity and then national identity.

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