首页 > 专题2016 > 2016中欧人权研讨会 > 观点精粹 >
朱力宇:地方立法权扩大与我国的城镇化、实施脱贫攻坚及保障少数民族权利

2016-09-28 18:47:53   来源:中国人权网   作者:朱力宇

\
中国人民大学人权研究中心副主任、教授 朱力宇  (赵一帆 摄)


地方立法权扩大与我国的城镇化、实施脱贫攻坚及保障少数民族权利
——以云南省为基本例证

  修改后的《立法法》扩大了地方立法权,即设区的市新享有地方立法权和自治州地方立法权的增加。云南是《立法法》修改后全国地方立法权扩大最多的省级行政区之一。在扩大地方立法权后,有关地方应当依据宪法和法律,以保障我国城镇化进程为目标之一,从实施脱贫攻坚、解决区域性整体贫困问题和保障少数民族权利等方面来进行相关的立法。这些立法的基本方向和依据是《十三五规划》。地方立法权扩大后,有权立法的地方主体在立法过程中,应当考虑到本地城镇化的趋势及其可能带来的负面影响,将城镇化的过程纳入法治的轨道,而不是盲目行使立法权。城镇化的进程又与农村贫困人口实现脱贫密切相关,城镇化进程同时也是脱贫的过程。所以,在扩大地方立法权后,有关地方在保障城镇化进程的同时,还应当从解决区域性整体贫困问题方面来进行相关的立法。在我国,城镇化的进程特别是农村贫困人口实现脱贫问题,重点是在少数民族聚居的地区。在扩大地方立法权后,有关地方还应当依据宪法和法律,进一步从保障少数民族权利方面来进行相关的立法,而此问题与民族地区的发展也是密切相关的。云南属于民族地区、边疆地区,其中有不少困难地区和集中连片贫困地区。因此,在云南的地方立法权扩大后,需要并且可以跨越式地进一步保障聚居在云南的少数民族的权利。保障少数民族的权利,最重要的是保障他们的经济和社会发展的权利。而在云南,摆在第一位的,就是要扶持少数民族摆脱贫困。此外,云南较之其他省甚至是其他民族自治地方,也有更多、更艰巨的立法工作要做。例如,关于如何进一步保护省内各少数民族的语言和文字的问题。地方立法权扩大后,还必须重视立法规划的工作和制度。包括云南在内有关地方,应当依据《十三五规划》,制定自己的立法规划,在推进城镇化的进程中,如何进一步保障少数民族权利,还有更多更艰巨的立法工作要做。即使《十三五规划》完成后,中国的城镇化进程还要继续,还要防止“返贫”,而保障少数民族权利,更是一项长期的立法工作。
 

The Relationship of the Expansion of Local Legislative Power with the Urbanization in China, the Implementation of Poverty Alleviation Program and the Protection of Minority Rights
--A Case Study of Yunnan Province

Zhu Liyu

 

The revised Legislation Law expands the local legislative power, which means the new local legislative power conferred on the districted cities and the increase of local legislative power enjoyed by the autonomous prefectures. Yunnan is one of the provinces with greatest expansion of local legislative power after the revision of Legislation Law. Upon expansion of local legislative power, relevant regions shall, in accordance with the Constitution and laws, take the promotion of China’s urbanization process as one of their goals and implement relevant legislation from perspectives like implementing poverty alleviation program, dealing with regional overall poverty problems and protecting minority rights. The fundamental direction and basis of such legislation is the 13th Five Year Plan. Local legislative bodies shall, upon such expansion, consider the tendency of local urbanization process and the possible negative effects thereof in the legislative process, incorporating the urbanization process into the rule-by-law system instead of exercising legislative power blindly. Being closely related to the realization of poverty alleviation of rural poor, the urbanization process itself is the process of poverty alleviation. Therefore, relevant regions shall, upon such expansion, implement relevant legislation from the perspective of solving regional overall poverty problems while promoting the urbanization process. In China, the urbanization process, especially the realization of poverty alleviation of rural poor, shall focus on the minority areas. Relevant regions shall, upon such expansion, further implement relevant legislation in accordance with the Constitution and laws from the perspective of protecting the minority rights, which is closely related to the development of minority regions, Yunnan is a minority region as well as a border area, where exists quite a few distressed areas and concentrated scaled poverty-stricken areas. Therefore, the rights of minorities living in Yunnan shall be and could be further protected. The most important aspect of protecting the minority rights is to protect their rights of economic and social development. However, supporting the minorities to get rid of poverty is the primary task for Yunnan. Compared with other provinces or other ethic autonomous regions, Yunnan still have more and harder legislative work to be done, such as work concerning the further protection of languages and characters of minorities within the province. Considerable attention shall also be paid to the legislative planning and relevant systems upon such expansion. Relevant regions including Yunnan shall, in accordance with the 13th Five Year Plan, formulate their own legislation planning. And in the process of urbanization promotion, there still exists more and harder legislative work to be done for the further protection of minority rights. Even after the completion of the 13th Five Year Plan, the urbanization process in China should be continued as well as the work to prevent “re-poverty”. And the protection of minority rights is especially a long-term legislative task.

分享到:

上一篇:少数民族权利保护的价值理念问题
下一篇:接引认同:少数民族司法干部培养与角色构建