首页 > 专题2016 > 2016中欧人权研讨会 > 观点精粹 >
少数民族权利保护的价值理念问题

2016-09-28 18:46:12   来源:中国人权网   作者:周少青

\
中国社会科学院教授 周少青  (赵一帆 摄)


少数民族权利保护的价值理念问题

  价值理念问题是少数民族权利保护的深层次问题。通过对相关历史、理论、制度和政策文本的分析,可归纳出五种少数民族权利保护的价值理念。这些理念在不同的国家和地区,或者在相同国家的不同历史时期各有侧重,单独或共同作用于这些国家和地区的少数民族权利保护的理论和实践,产生了不同的政治和社会效果。其一,多数民族的利害是历史上最早出现的保护少数民族权利的价值理念。在民族国家的形成过程中,多数民族的利害理念逐渐转化为国家安全与统一的理念。进入近代以后,维护国家安全与统一逐步成为国际和国内法层面保护少数民族权利不可或缺的价值理念。这一价值理念从根本上决定着少数民族权利保护的广度和深度,决定着少数民族权利立法和实践的基本走向和实际效果。其二,“权利正义”是少数民族权利保护的核心价值理念,其涉及民主权利制衡和权利补偿两个基本问题。在少数民族权利保护的价值理念中,权利正义尤其是权利补偿的正义理念最具合法性抗辩力。它表明,目前世界各国坚持的有关少数民族权利保护的种种政策、立法及实践,并不是一种单纯的来自多数民族的慷慨或无条件的优惠,而是一种恢复性正义。其三,保存多元文化的价值理念,其主要有三个出发点。第一个出发点是把保护少数民族(文化)权利视为一种对逝去或正在逝去的文明的挽留。第二个出发点是把保护少数民族(文化)权利视为与人类社会利益攸关的文化参照措施。第三个出发点是把少数民族(文化)权利视为完整的人类文化的一部分,强调保护少数民族(文化)权利就是保护人类文化本身。其四,尊重人权的价值理念,即多数民族从同为平等的人类、享有平等的人类尊严和权利出发,以“待彼如待己”的价值理念对待和处理少数民族权利保护问题。这一理念具有全面性、完善性、自洽性和综合正义性。其五,马克思主义的各民族政治族格一律平等的价值理念。马克思主义的民族平等理念建立在反对民族压迫与剥削、各民族政治族格一律平等的基础之上,其平等理念的最大特点是,试图从根本上找到解决历史遗留下来的民族不平等问题。
 

Values of Minority Rights Protection

Zhou Shaoqing


 Value problems are deep-seated problems of minority rights protection.Based on analysis of related texts of history, theory, system and policy, five kinds of values of minority rights protection can be summed up, which have different emphases in different countries and regions, or in different historical periods of the same country. Alone or together, these values act on theory and practice of minority rights protection in these countries and regions,resulting in different political and social effects.First, majority interest is the earliest value in history to protect minority rights.In the process of formation of national states, majority interest in philosophy gradually transformed into the concept of national security and unity. After entering the modern times, the maintenance of national security and unity has gradually become an integral part of the values of the international and domestic laws to protect minority rights. This value concept fundamentally determines the breadth and depth of the protection of minority rights, and determines the basic direction and practical effect of the legislation and practice of the minority rights. Second, "rights and justice" is the core value of protection of minority rights, which involves two basic issues of democratic right balance and right compensation.In the value of minority rights protection, rights and justice, in particular, the justice concept of rights compensation has the most legitimate defense force.It shows that various policies, legislation and practice of the protection of minority rights which all the countries in the world currently insist on, are not simply generous or unconditional offer from the majority, but a kind of restorative justice. Third, to preserve the values of multiculturalism, there are three main starting points. The first starting point is to protect minorities (cultural) rights as a kind of retention of the lost or losing civilization.The second starting point is to protect minorities (cultural) rights as a cultural reference measure which is in relation to human social interests.The third point is to regard minorities (cultural) rights as a part of the whole human culture, emphasizing that the protection of minorities (cultural) rights is to protect the human culture itself. Forth, we should respect human rights values, that is, with the value of “to treat the other as to be treated ", the majority should start from the idea that equal human beings enjoy equal human dignity and rights,  to treat and deal with the issue of minority rights protection. This idea is comprehensive, perfect, self-consistent and comprehensive. Fifth, this value is the Marx doctrine that all ethnic political groups are equal. It based on opposition to ethnic oppression and exploitation, and on the basis of the political equality of all ethnic groups. It is mainly characterized by the idea of trying to find a fundamental solution to the historical legacy of ethnic inequality.

分享到:

上一篇:我国少数民族地区基本公共卫生服务均等化研究
下一篇:朱力宇:地方立法权扩大与我国的城镇化、实施脱贫攻坚及保障少数民族权利