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少数民族差别权利的透视和反思

2016-09-28 18:41:39   来源:中国人权网   作者:赵树坤 王璇

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西南政法大学人权研究院教育培训部主任、教授 赵树坤  (赵一帆 摄)


少数民族差别权利的透视和反思

赵树坤 王璇

  少数民族是否应当享有差别化的权利?从差别权利的事实起源、道德证成和政治正当性三个角度可以得到肯定答案。基于文化差异的社会事实,少数民族成员往往会生发出一种“权利诉求”,既有的公民普遍权利体系并没能很好地满足这种权利诉求,这种基于事实的差异,为少数民族差别权利的生长提供了现实土壤;少数民族差别权利的另一价值核心是:承认、尊重和保护个体的文化归属和文化身份;形式上公平的“平等参与”不足以保障少数民族成员的基本人权,更谈不上保障这些群体及其成员的额外权利诉求,立足于“文化差异的公共性”,借助于国家力量的出场,才可能调整和矫正这种不平衡的社会境况。当代族群差别权利法律和政策的实施在带来巨大、积极的社会效果的同时,也出人意料地带来了新的文化隔阂、族裔冲突和族群对抗。从目前世界各国确立族群差别权利的常态做法看,通常有如下几种政策:禁止歧视、置前优待、置后优待和配额分配。一般而言,“禁止歧视政策”的社会阻碍较小,置前优待政策的社会效果不容乐观,置后优待政策的效果值得肯定和支持,采取配额分配方式的政策较为不妥。少数民族差别权利政策对于少数民族成员的政治认同和国家稳定统一亦至关重要。少数民族差别权利政策,在满足少数民族成员归属本族文化,促进“文化多元”的同时,确实存在着损害“政治一体”的危险,如何协调好二者的关系,是少数民族差别权利政策一贯面临的核心问题。国家承认和尊重国内各民族文化的存在,践行多元文化社会政策,运用国家力量积极保护边缘文化群体成员的生存和发展。在各种文化交流和社会交往中,建构起文化平等交流平台,在保护差异和宽容文化中达成共识,以此建立起国家需求的“一致性和普遍性”。由是,坚持多元文化主义国策,践行少数民族差别权利制度,这一路径最有可能处理好“文化多元”和“政治一体”的关系,促进民族文化认同和国家政治认同的和谐共赢发展。
 

Perspective of and Reflections on Differentiated Rights of Ethnic Minorities

Zhao Shulun & Wang Xuan

Should the ethnic minorities have differentiated rights? A positive answer can be obtained based onthefactual origin, moral factor and political correctness of differentiated rights. The members of ethnic minorities tend to have claims for“rights”that are based on the social fact that their culture is different from that of other members of the society. The existing system of universal rights of citizens cannot fully meet such claims. Such fact-based difference provides the soil, so to speak, in which differentiated rights of minority ethnic groups can grow. What’s more, the core value of differentiated rights is to recognize, respect and protect the cultural identity of individuals.Thirdly, “equal participation” alone is not sufficient to protect the basic human rights of the ethnic minorities, not to mention satisfying their claim for additional rights. Considering the distinct cultural background of ethnic minorities, only with the help of the state power, can the imbalance of social situation be adjusted and corrected.The implementation of the laws and policiesfor differentiated rights of ethnic minorities have brought about an enormous positive social effect, but at the same time new cultural barriers, ethnic conflicts and confrontations have unexpectedly come along. At present, the normal practices worldwide in establishing differentiated rights of ethnic minorities include the following policies: prohibition of discrimination, positively prioritized preferential treatment, reversely prioritized preferential treatmentand quota allocation. It is commonly believed that the “policy of prohibiting discrimination ” encounters the least social resistance;
the social effects of the policies of positively prioritized preferential treatmentare not optimistic; reversely prioritized preferential treatmentdeserves affirmation and support whilethe policy of quota allocation proves undesirable. The policies relating to ethnic minorities’ rights are crucial to the political identification of the ethnic minorities and national stability. On the one hand, the policy of differentiated rights contribute to “cultural diversity” by meetingthe need of ethnic minorities to return to their own culture. On the other hand, there exist risks that may endanger“political integration”. How to coordinate the relationshipbetween the two is akey point which always confronts differentiated rights policy for ethnic minorities. The cultures of all ethnic minorities should be recognized and respected, multi-cultural social policies be practiced and the state powerbe employed to actively protect the subsistence and development of members of ethnic minority groups. A platform for equal communication should be built by cultural exchanges and social contacts; consensus should be reached based on protection of differences and tolerance of cultural diversity, and ultimately in this way bring about “consistency and universality” that China needs. The approach of adhering to multiculturalism and differentiated rights of ethnic minorities, is the most likely way to optimally dealwith the relationship between “multiculturalism” and “political integration”, promotea win-win development of national cultural identity and political harmony.

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