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积极世俗主义与欧洲少数民族权利保障

2016-09-28 18:38:56   来源:中国人权网   作者:张弦

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华中师范大学副教授  张弦  (赵一帆 摄)


积极世俗主义与欧洲少数民族权利保障

  欧洲是世界上最具民族多样性,同时也是民族问题最复杂的地区之一。作为国际关系中“规范性”力量的代表,欧盟一直致力于推动包括少数民族权利在内的人权保障,并反映在其内政外交政策之中。欧洲对少数民族权利进行保障的历史比较悠久,保护制度与措施较为完善。但是,法国作为联合国安理会五大常任理事国之一、欧洲经济的火车头及政治一体化的主要推手,在少数民族权利尤其是宗教性少数群体的权利保障方面,推行积极世俗主义并将之作为立国之基。其对少数民族权利尤其是宗教和文化权利的保障采取了独特的做法并引发了争议,最为典型的是穆斯林女性的“头巾问题”。由“头巾问题” 所引发的的维护公共安全和保障少数民族宗教权利之间的张力则具体体现了“积极世俗主义”,对整个欧洲的传统价值观念和行为模式带来了冲击。2015年以来,随着欧洲难民危机的愈演愈烈并给多个国家带来政治冲击,把一向强调自由、宽容、注重人权的欧洲推到了十字路口。面对法国“积极世俗主义”有向其它欧洲国家逐步扩散的趋势,所要重塑的不仅仅是欧洲政府的政策和行为,还包括欧洲人深层的价值观念和文化心理


Positive Secularism and the Protection of the Rights of Ethnic Minorities in Europe

ZHANG Xian

As one of the most ethnically diverse regions of the world, Europe also faces some of the most complicated ethnical issues. As a typical “normative” power in international relations, the European Union has always been dedicated to promoting the protection of all human rights, including those of ethnic minorities, and woven such dedication into its domestic and diplomatic policies. While Europe has a fairly long tradition when it comes to the protection of the rights of ethnic minorities, having put in place reasonably developed institution and measures, France, one of the economic engines of Europe and the main force behind the political integration of the EU, as well as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, has been advocating positive secularism and even adopted it as part of the foundation on which the country rests. France has caused controversies with its unique tactics in the protection of ethnic minorities’ rights, especially religious and cultural rights, the most typical of which is the issue surrounding the “niqabs” worn by Muslim women. The tension brought about by the “niqabs” issue between public security on the one hand and protecting the religious rights of ethnic minorities embodies “positive secularism”, which has had an impact on the traditional values and codes of conduct of Europe as a whole. Starting from the year 2015, the refugee crisis in Europe has been escalating and has brought about an enormous political impact on many countries, pushing Europe, which has long been committed to liberty, tolerance and human rights, to a historic crossroad, as it were. In the context that the “positive secularism” of French are steadily spreading to other European countries, it is necessary to reshape not only the policies and conducts of European governments, but also the deep-rooted values and cultural mentality of Europeans.

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