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国际人权法视野下的少数民族权利保障

2016-09-28 18:35:05   来源:中国人权网   作者:张 伟 闫姿含

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中国政法大学人权研究院常务副院长、教授 张 伟 (赵一帆 摄)



国际人权法视野下的少数民族权利保障

张 伟  闫姿含
 

  随着人们对人权认识的不断关注和加深,公民权利和自由越来越受到重视。作为人权的重要组成部分的少数民族权利,对其进行保护不仅是涉及各主权国家团结、稳定和世界和平的重要问题,更是当今国际社会所普遍关注的人权问题。特别是20世纪90年代以来,随着种族冲突引发的地缘冲突的加剧,世界各国对少数民族权利的保护越来越重视。本文拟从国际人权法的角度,对少数民族人权问题的历史发展,国际保护的内容、方式进行阐述,旨在说明对于少数民族人权的保护有赖于各个国家、组织、团体和个人对国际法规范的共同遵守。但是,少数民族权利的最终实现,还有赖于各主权国家认真履行国际法义务并通过国内立法的形式切实保护少数民族的各项权利,以形成国际法和国内法相互补充、相辅相成的权利保护格局。为进一步完善少数民族人权保障体系,有关利益主体应充分交流和磋商,寻求各方都能接受的方法,取得共识,建立公正、合理的国际秩序。


An International Human Rights Law Perspective on the Protection of the Rights of Ethnic Minorities

ZHANG Wei, YAN Zihan
 

Abstract: With people's increasing concern over and deepening understanding of human rights, citizens’ rights and freedoms are receiving more and more attention. In this context, the protection of the rights of ethnic minorities, which are an important part of human rights, is not only an important issue that involves the unity of and stability of sovereign states as well as international peace, but also a human rights issue that draws attention from across the international community. In particular, many countries are paying increasing attention to protecting the rights of ethnic minorities given the accelerating geopolitical conflicts triggered by ethnic clashes since the 1990s. In view of this, this paper reviewed the historical evolution of human right issues of ethnic minorities, as well as the form and substance of international protection of such rights from the perspective of international human rights law, with a view to demonstrating that the protection of ethnic minority groups hinges on the collective and concerted compliance by all states, organizations, groups and individuals with relevant rules under international human rights laws. However, the realization of minority ethnic groups’ rights ultimately depends on earnest performance by sovereign states of their obligations under international law as well as their effective protection of such rights through domestic legislation. Through this two-pronged approach, a pattern in which international law and domestic law complement and enhance each other will emerge. Further, in order to further improve the protection system for the rights of ethnic minority groups, all stake-holders should, on the basis of thorough exchanges and consultations, find out universally acceptable ways to reach consensus and establish a fair and rational international order.

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