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从中国民族政策谈少数民族人权保障的发展

2016-09-28 18:33:51   来源:中国人权网   作者:张国斌

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察哈尔学会秘书长张国斌在研讨会上发言。(赵一帆 摄)


从中国民族政策谈少数民族人权保障的发展
 

  当今世界,绝大多数国家都是由多民族组成,民族关系处理的好坏直接影响到一个国家或地区的和平与稳定,民族问题是古今中外普遍存在的对人类社会产生重大影响的社会政治问题。作为历史上饱经战争洗礼,虽历经无数次外族入侵,却依然保持文化传承完整的国家,中国在实现民族团结,保障少数民族人权,保障全体公民人权的方法与制度上自有其优越性。虽然在封建社会中还未有“人权”这一概念,但在漫长的历史进程中,历代封建王朝采取政策在事实上保障了各少数民族的人权。自秦汉以来,中国就建立了中央集权制的多民族封建国家,中央王朝往往采用以怀柔为主的政策,通过设置行政机构、和亲、册封少数民族首领等方式对少数民族实施有效管辖,尊重各少数民族保持民族特色的同时,帮助各民族发展,如此以来,各民族交错杂居,彼此影响,取长补短,有着相互依存、利害共同的关系。同时,各少数民族也用自己的实际行动在维护中国主权,捍卫祖国领土完整做出的巨大贡献。新中国成立以来,中国政府在处理少数民族事务时,坚持各民族平等、团结和共同繁荣的基本原则,充分保障各族人民的合法权益。随着社会进步,中国政府根据本国国情,坚持一切从实际出发,保障我国各少数民族合法权利的政策和措施不断出台并落实。第一,坚持民族平等和民族团结的基本原则。第二,各民族平等参与国家事务管理的原则。第三,民族区域自治原则。第四,出台了一系列加快少数民族经济发展的政策。第五,针对少数民族人口政策,也出台了一系列保障措施。第六,大力发展少数民族的教育事业。第七,尊重少数民族使用和发展语言、文字的权利。第八,坚持尊重少数民族的宗教信仰自由的政策。第九,保护少数民族历史文化遗产的政策。第十,尊重少数民族风俗习惯的政策。作为一个发展中国家,我国在保障少数民族人权方面依然存在许多不足需要改进和防范。少数民族地区经济发展不均衡,社会资源分布需要进一步调整,地区教育问题依然面临很多挑战等。但是,让人充满信心的是,党和政府一直正视这些问题,并从经济、政治、文化、教育、科学、卫生等多个领域采取措施进行解决,并取得了显著的成效。
 

On the development of the protection of human rights from the national policy of China

ZhangGuoBin


 in today's world, most countries are composed of many nationalities, ethnic relations directly affect the peace and stability of a country or region, ethnic issues have great influence on the social political problems at all times and in all countries. As history has been through war, although after countless invasions, but still maintain complete national cultural heritage, China in the realization of national unity, safeguard human rights of minorities, and institutional methods to protect the human rights of all citizens on its own superiority. Although there is no concept of "human rights" in feudal society, in the long historical process, the feudal dynasties adopted policies to protect the human rights of the minorities in fact. Since the Qin and Han Dynasties, China established multi-ethnic feudal state centralization, the Central Dynasty often used by Huairou based policy, the implementation of effective jurisdiction of ethnic minorities by setting up administrative agencies, and canonized, minority leader etc., respecting the minority maintenancenationality characteristic, has helped the development of all nationalities, so each nation, staggered, influence each other, learn from each other, there is interdependence and common interests relationship. At the same time, the ethnic minorities also use their own practical actions in safeguarding China's sovereignty, to defend the motherland's territorial integrity to make a huge contribution. Since the founding of new China, the Chinese government has insisted on the basic principles of equality, unity and common prosperity of all ethnic groups, and fully guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of the people of all ethnic groups in the process of dealing with ethnic affairs. With the social progress, the Chinese government according to their own national conditions, adhere to everything from reality, to protect the legitimate rights and interests of the various ethnic minorities policies and measures have been introduced and implemented. First, adhere to the basic principles of national equality and national unity. Second, the principle of equality of all ethnic groups involved in the management of state affairs. Third, the principle of regional autonomy of ethnic minorities. Fourth, the introduction of a series of policies to accelerate the development of the economic development of ethnic minorities. Fifth, in view of the minority population policy, also introduced a series of safeguard measures. Sixth, vigorously develop the education of ethnic minorities. Seventh, respect for the use and development of minority languages, and the right to language. Eighth, we should adhere to the policy of respecting the freedom of religious belief of ethnic minorities. Ninth, the protection of the historical and cultural heritage of the minority policy. Tenth, respect the customs and habits of the policy of ethnic minorities. As a developing country, there are still many deficiencies in the protection of human rights in our country. The economic development of minority areas is not balanced, the distribution of social resources needs to be further adjusted, regional education is still faced with many challenges, such as. However, confidence in the people, the party and the government has to face these problems, and from the fields of economy, politics, culture, education, science, health and other measures to solve, and have achieved remarkable results.

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