首页 > 专题2016 > 2016中欧人权研讨会 > 观点精粹 >
少数民族环境权保障论纲

2016-09-28 18:32:13   来源:中国人权网   作者:张震 廖加川

\
西南政法大学教授 张震  (赵一帆 摄)


少数民族环境权保障论纲

张震  廖加川

  近年来,环境权的概念日益被国内学界接受,被普遍认为是一项基本人权,与此同时,中国政府也日益肯定环境权的概念。但现今人们过多关注一般意义上的环境权,而忽视了环境权的群体差异性。环境权在不同的区域,对于不同的主体具有不同的内容,将环境权的权利主体认定为抽象的人是不客观的,应该对不同主体的环境权做多样化的分析。近年来,少数民族地区生态环境污染问题屡见不鲜,并且破坏性较大,这显然与环境权的目标背道而驰。因此,为了更好的保护少数民族地区的环境,将环境权落实到实处,我们必须重视环境权的群体差异性,将普遍意义的环境权与少数民族的特殊性有机结合起来,对少数民族的环境权进行特殊的规定和保护。少数民族与环境的特殊交往关系决定了我们必须对少数民族的环境权进行特殊保护,只有这样才能实现环境权的目标。少数民族环境权是以少数民族生存权为基础的,是建立在少数民族地区特殊文化、经济现状上。依托于其独特的环境特征的一类特殊环境权,由于其存在的基础特殊性,相对于普遍性的环境权而言,其有着具体的范围、内涵和外延。概括而言,少数民族环境权是指少数民族享有的适宜、健康和良好的生活环境,以及合理利用其周边环境资源的资格和权利,其中环境的利用权是少数民族环境权的核心。这种权利并不是指少数民族所独有,而更应该是全人类所共享的,而在共享的同时应该对少数民族进行特别保护的,以保证这些权利得到真正的行使。少数民族环境权保护的落脚点在于保护环境权的实质内容,关键是要求少数民族地区的生态环境良性稳定、可持续发展,只有这样才能使少数民族环境权得到切实保护。少数民族环境权保护有其特殊价值,它是民族团结的题中之义,是国家生态安全的战略需要,同时也是环境权保护理论与实践的双重需求。在充分把握少数民族环境权内涵的基础上,通过有效的制度构建,期冀实现少数民族环境权从“应然权利”转变为“法定权利”、“实然权利”。
 

On the Protection of the Environmental Rights of Ethnic Minorities in China

Zhang Zhen & Liao Jiachuan

 In recent years, the concept of environmental rights has been recognized by more and more Chinese scholars and have come to be widely regarded as one of the fundamental human rights, and are being increasingly confirmed by the Chinese government. On the other hand, however, there is an over-emphasis on environmental rights in the general sense at the expense of group-differentiation of environmental rights. As environmental rights may differ depending on specific geographical regions and subjects, it is therefore unjustified to view abstract person to be the subjects of environmental rights, and instead, differentiated analyses should be carried out for environmental rights of different types of subjects. A case in point is environmental rights of ethnic minorities. in the light ofdifferent subjectsRecent years have witnessed frequent and often highly destructive incidents of ecological and environmental pollution in regions inhabited by ethnic minorities, which obviously contravenes the objectives of disruptive impactsenvironmental rights. Therefore, in order to better protect the environment in ethnic minority areas and effectively put environmental rights into practice, due importance must be attached to the differentiation of environmental rights among different groups, and the environmental rights in the general sense must be brought in line with specific features of ethnic minorities, and provide specifically targeted protection to the environmental rights of ethnic minorities on the basis of special legal provisions. The special relationship between ethnic minorities and their environments determines that special protection must be provided for the environmental right of ethnic minorities and only in this way can the goals of environmental rights be achieved. The environmental rights of ethnic minorities are based on their rights to survival and their special cultural and economic situations. Compared with the universal environmental right, such special environmental rights which rely on unique environmental features, because of its special foundation, have a specific range, connotation and denotation. Generally speaking, the environmental rights of ethnic minorities refers to their rights and qualifications to enjoy suitable, healthy and good living environments and to make rational use of surrounding environment resources, with the right to the use the environment as its core. This right is not exclusively enjoyed by ethnic minorities, but is shared by all human beings, while giving special protection for minorities to guarantee the practical exercise of these rights. The basic point of protection of environmental rights in minority areas is to protect the substance of environmental right, with the key being to realize the healthy, stable and sustainable development of ecological environment in ethnic minority areas. Only in this way can the environmental rights of ethnic minorities be effectively protected. The protection of environmental rights in minority areas is of special value and is vital to the national unity; it is also the strategic need of national ecological security and is the theoretical and practical needs of the protection of environmental right. Based on full grasp of the connotation of the environmental rights of minorities, through the construction of effective systems, we hope to realize the transformation of environmental rights of minorities from "obligatory right" to "statutory right" and "actual right".

分享到:

上一篇:庭审中语言平等权的保障
下一篇:从中国民族政策谈少数民族人权保障的发展