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庭审中语言平等权的保障

2016-09-28 18:30:21   来源:中国人权网   作者:赵书文

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西北师范大学副教授 赵书文 (赵一帆 摄)


庭审中语言平等权的保障
——以甘肃民族地区汉藏双语法官培训为例

  甘肃省是一个多民族省份,藏族群众聚居在甘南藏族自治州,由于缺乏 “汉藏兼通”的双语法官,致使藏族当事人在民事案件或者刑事案件中无法平等的使用藏语和汉族当事人或者庭审法官进行直接、便利的交流,而只能聘请会汉藏双语的翻译人员代为沟通,这在客观上已经阻碍了藏族当事人使用本民族语言进行诉讼的宪法权利的行使;另外,藏族当事人通过语言翻译人员和法庭进行沟通,这种交流和沟通虽然是为了保障藏族当事人的语言权,但是,这种措施却是一种间接的、不彻底的语言权的保障;再者,和汉族当事人比较而言,庭审中藏族当事人在语言权的平等使用方面依然存在着不小的差距。针对此种情形,欲想实现庭审中语言权的平等,唯有培养“汉藏兼通”的双语法官,才能彻底消除庭审中语言权的平等问题。语言权的平等问题在很大程度上体现了民族群众法律权利的平等,人权的平等!在最高人民法院和国家民委的支持下,甘肃省在“汉藏兼通”的双语法官培养方面做出了不菲的成绩,这对于促进藏族当事人在庭审中平等的享有语言权作出了显著的成绩。然而,解决双语法官问题是一个系统工程,在现实中,甘肃省民族地区汉藏双语法官问题的彻底解决还存在着一系列亟待克服解决的难题。
 

On the Protection of the Right of Language Parity in Court Trial: Taking as an Example the Training of Chinese-Tibetan Bilingual Judges in Ethnic Area of China’s Gansu Province

Zhao Shuwen

China’s Gansu Province is a multi-ethnic province. Tibetan people living in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of the province, due to lack of bilingual judges fluent in both Chinese and Tibetan, are unable to use Tibetan to engage in direct and convenient communication with Chinese counter-parties in civil and criminal cases, and therefore have to communicate through translators fluent in both Chinese and Tibetan languages, which has in fact impeded Tibetan parties’ exercise of their constitutional right of using their native languages in legal proceedings. Second, although Tibetan litigants communication with the court through translators is intended to ensure their language right, it is a direct and incomplete guarantee. Third, there still exists no small gap between Chinese and Tibetan parties in court trial with regard to equal exercise of language right. Under such circumstances, to realize equal language right in court trial, only by training bilingual judges fluent in both Chinese and Tibetan languagescan we thoroughly eliminate the disparity in language right in court trial. The issue of equal language right to a large extent reflects the equality of legal rights and human rights among ethnic minorities in China. Under the support of Supreme People’s Court and State Ethnic Affairs Commission, great achievements have been made by Gansu Province in training bilingual judges fluent in both Chinese and Tibetan, a great step forward for equal enjoyment of language right by Tibetan parties in court trial. However, it is a systematic undertaking to solve the issue of bilingual judges, and in reality, there are a series of challenges demanding to be overcome in completely resolving the problem of bilingual judges in ethnic minority areas of Gansu Province.

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