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中国少数民族经济权利保障的新亮点

2016-09-28 18:28:59   来源:中国人权网   作者:鲜开林

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东北财经大学人权研究与教育中心执行主任,教授 鲜开林  (赵一帆 摄)


中国少数民族经济权利保障的新亮点

  在中国,党和政府历来高度重视并依法保障少数民族的各种合法权利。十八大以来,党和政府更加自觉地坚持“以人民为中心”的五大发展新理念,更加自觉地坚持各民族平等发展原则,尤其是少数民族特别受保护原则,日益使得中国少数民族公民既与汉族公民平等地享有宪法和法律规定的各项公民权利和自由,又依法享有少数民族特有的各项权利和自由。少数民族经济权利是公民经济权利在少数民族特殊群体中的集中反映和生动体现,是少数民族其他一切权利的前提条件。

  十八大以来,中国少数民族经济权利保障的新亮点可归纳为如下三点。亮点一,中国少数民族经济权利保障的新境界。其最集中表现在中国梦的人权价值引领和共享全面建成小康社会成果的少数民族经济权利新发展。习近平指出:“全面建成小康社会,最艰巨最繁重的任务在农村、特别是在贫困地区的少数民族”,“绝不能让一个少数民族、一个地区掉队,要让13亿中国人民共享全面小康的成果”。十八大以来,我国对少数民族继续实施倾斜性政策,经济社会发展投入持续增加,少数民族的经济发展权利切实得到了有效保障。民族八省区贫困人口从3917万人下降到2205万人,减少1712万人,减贫率为43.7%;贫困发生率从26.5%下降到14.7%,降幅为11.8个百分点。亮点二,中国少数民族经济权利保障的新内容。一是全面小康同步,让少数民族群众有财产性增收的经济权利保障“获得感”。二是公共服务同质,让少数民族群众有公共服务的经济权利保障“获得感”。三是法治保障同权,让少数民族群众有公平正义的经济权利保障“获得感”。亮点三,中国少数民族经济权利保障的新举措。一是实施精准扶贫、精准脱贫新战略。二是营造公平有序的经济发展法治环境,切实把加快民族地区发展、维护少数民族群众合法权益纳入法治化轨道,依法管控边境秩序、维护边境地区安全稳定。三是以制度创新为保障,实施对口援助,把有利于少数民族社会稳定和长治久安作为对口援助少数民族的根本目标,援助少数民族资金项目安排要注重向基层倾斜、向保障和改善少数民族的民生问题倾斜。四是以扶贫扶智为根本、增强保障少数民族经济权利的“造血”功能。
 

New economy of ethnic minority rights protection of China

Xian Kai Lin

Abstract:In China, the Communist Party and central government have been working on the legislation and enforcement of types of legal rights for minority groups. Since the 18th National Congress of CPC (the 18th National Congress), the Party and government have devoted more efforts to the five new development concepts—“people centered”, and to firmly insist on the principle of equal development among nationalities, especially these for minority groups. Minorities enjoy the civil rights and freedom as Han does under the Constitution and laws, besides, they have privileges of rights and freedom exclusively for them. Minorities’ economic right is a centralized reflection and vivid image of civil economic right in minority groups, which is the precondition of any other rights for minority groups.

Since the 18th National Congress, works on guaranteeing minority groups’ economic rights in China could be concluded in three highlights. 1. The new realm of guaranteeing minority groups’ economic rights in China. It has been mainly reflected in the guide of the China Dream’s human rights value and sharing the achievement of constructing a moderately prosperous society in all aspects for the new development of minority groups’ economic right. Xi Jinping stated: “The most onerous work of constructing a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, is in the rural areas, especially the minorities of poverty areas”, “Will not have a minority group or region fall behind, 1.3 billion people must benefit altogether the achievement of the well off society.” Since the 18th National Congress, government has continued the preferential policies for minority groups, and the investment on economic social development has been increased continually, which ensures minority groups’ economic development rights. The poverty population of eight ethnic provinces and regions has been decreased from 39.17 million to 22.05 million, the poverty reduction rate is 43.7%; the poverty incidence rate declines from 26.5% to 14.7%. 2. The new contents of guaranteeing minority groups’ economic rights in China. First, keeping the pace with the well off society construction, and helping minority people have “the sense of achievement” on income increase under the guarantee of economic rights. Second, ensuring the same quality of public services, and helping minority people have “the sense of achievement” on public service under the guarantee of economic rights. Third, ensuring the same rights of legal protection, and helping minority people have “the sense of achievement” on fairness and justice under the guarantee of economic rights. 3. The measures of guaranteeing minority groups’ economic rights in China. First, implementing the strategy of targeted and precise poverty alleviation. Second, creating a fair legal environment for economic development, making the development of ethnic region and protection of minority people’s legal rights law-based, and maintaining border stability according to law. Third, making the guarantee by institutional innovation, and having assistance to the selected area. The basic goal of the assistance is to facilitate social and political stability in minority groups. The assistant funds and projects should be in favor of grass root level and people’s livelihood issues of minority groups. Four, based on poverty alleviation and education improvement, enhancing “blood making” function of minority groups’ economic rights.

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