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中国地方法治对少数民族脱贫的推动与思考

2016-09-28 18:26:52   来源:中国人权网   作者:吴大华 尹训洋

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贵州省社会科学院院长、教授吴大华  (赵一帆 摄) 
                                            


中国地方法治对少数民族脱贫的推动与思考
——以多民族的贵州为例

  少数民族脱贫是同步小康中的重要一环,我国少数民族地区具有其自身显著的民族特征和地域特征,使得少数民族地区成为我国扶贫开发的重点和难点区域。充分认识少数民族地区脱贫开发的意义,结合政府脱贫攻坚的战略方针,同时注重与法治扶贫相配合,不断完善作为制度之需的扶贫开发法制建设,尽快构建反贫困法律机制,为少数民族地区脱贫提速。通过对当今少数民族脱贫现状的分析,着重探讨地方法治对少数民族脱贫的推动,重点介绍扶贫开发过程中的贵州法治经验:生态文明与开放式扶贫助力脱贫、绿色化与立法保障深入扶贫、扶贫开发条例引导脱贫等。建议肯定政府主导扶贫开发的同时,确定多元主体共同推进扶贫开发;明确贫困标准、识别程序、公示公开程序,并完善扶贫对象动态跟踪系统;重大项目上建议引入第三方;明确扶贫对象参与扶贫项目的具体程序与路径;对扶贫开发与最低生活保障、就业、创业、教育、医疗、民政救济救助等制度性衔接进行规范;将保障当地少数民族居民合法权益列入扶贫开发原则强化扶贫开发责任承担,建议加大对违规行为的惩处力度等,让地方法治为少数民族脱贫保驾护航。
 

Reflection on the Role of China’s Local Rule of Law in Promoting Poverty eradication in Ethnic Minority Regions
– Taking the Multi-ethnic GuizhouProvince of China as an Example

WU Dahua, YIN Xunyang

Poverty eradication in ethnic minority regionsis as an important part in China’s bid to turn the country into a moderately prosperous society for all regions and all people in a synchronized way. Thus, ethnic minority regions in China, with their own significant ethnic and regional particularities,have become the priority and conundrum for China’s poverty eradication and development drive.Fully aware of the significance of poverty eradication and development in ethnic minority regions, we should engage in continuous improvement of the legal system in light of the government’s strategic objectives for povertyeradication andputting emphasis on the coordination between poverty reduction and the rule of law, so as to establish and consolidatelegal mechanisms against poverty as soon as possible and speed up the process of poverty eradication in ethnic minority regions. This paper, through an analysis of the status quo of poverty eradication in ethnic minority regions, focuses on the role oflocal rule of law for the promotion of poverty eradication in ethnic minority regions, especially the experience of Guizhou Province in the process of poverty eradication and development – poverty eradication aided by open-ended support and sustainable balance between economic growth and environmental preservation, strengthened by environmental sustainability-orientated “green initiatives”and legislation guarantees, and guided by the formulation of regulations for povertyeradication and development. In conclusion, it is suggested that diversified participants should be ascertained for joint promotion of poverty eradication and development under the dominance of government; the poverty standard, identification process and procedures for publicity and disclosureshould be clarified; a dynamic tracking systemshould be improved for those covered by poverty eradication program; third parties should be introduced for major projects; specific procedures and channels for those covered by poverty eradication program to participate; institutional linkage should be regulated between poverty eradication and development on the one hand and other mechanisms such as subsistence allowance, employment, entrepreneurship, education, healthcare, relief and support by authorities in charge of civil affairs; the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of local minority residents should be included in the principles of poverty eradication and development to strengthen the accountabilitytherefor; andthe penalties for non-compliance should be increased,allowing the rule of law to guarantee poverty eradication of ethnic groups.

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