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维吾尔族传统社会伦理思想及和谐民族地区建设

2016-09-28 18:20:40   来源:中国人权网   作者:麦买提•乌斯曼

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新疆农业大学副教授  麦买提•乌斯曼(赵一帆 摄)


维吾尔族传统社会伦理思想及和谐民族地区建设

  新疆维吾尔族传统社会伦理不仅贯穿并体现在维吾尔族文化的传承和发展中,也是维吾尔族社会生活方式的重要组成部分,在影响维吾尔族社会心理、民族情感和促进民族地区和谐稳定中扮演重要作用。维吾尔族传统社会伦理思想的主要内容包括三个方面:一是爱国、和谐社会观。爱国社会观体现在维吾尔族的一些谚语和近代思想家的著述当中。包括“与其在异国当皇帝,不如在故乡出苦力”、“脱离祖国的人,如失去丛林的鸟”、“要团结不要分裂”等。和谐社会观基于维吾尔族传统“四素观”中“水、土、气、火”四者之间并非对立而是平行的关系,认为“自然之间”、“人与自然之间”、“人与社会之间”、“人与人之间”这四种关系也是和谐的。二是平等、公正、宽容的人际关系。“平等”是和谐人际关系的基础,人与人之间和谐的前提是人与人之间的平等。“公正”意味着不偏不倚,要求人在处理各种社会问题时,努力实现不同事物之间的均衡、中和。“宽容”意味着能容忍不同的思想、意见和性格,包容自己认为不理想的行为,尊重他人的兴趣、爱好。三是团结友爱、扶贫帮困、和睦邻里的处世美德。团结友爱既能够调整人与人之间的关系,也是人与人关系的存在形式。扶贫帮困要求在力所能及的范围内帮助他人,防止极端贫富差距现象出现。和睦邻里意味着要善待邻里,邻里之间不能相互攻击。维吾尔族传统伦理思想对和谐民族地区建设的作用体现在四个方面:一是传统伦理思想是民族地区和谐发展的精神指导。戈壁、沙漠和崇山峻岭的包围下形成的封闭的不利理环境并没有阻碍新疆的发展,反而维吾尔族社会伦理思想中的和谐思想加之维吾尔族的勤劳勇敢和坚毅果断为新疆今天的发展奠定了基础。二是传统伦理思想中“忠君”和“敬主”的“二元忠诚”道德观在现代社会中转换为爱国与爱教的结合,将“忠诚”与社会主义核心价值观相统一,逐步培养并形成现代公民意识。三是传统伦理思想可以转化为促进民族地区人际和谐的基本原则,可以充分利用平等、公正、宽容的人际观念和团结友爱、扶贫帮困,邻里和睦的处事美德协调不同民族之间的利益分配。四是传统社会伦理思想中和谐社会观,团结友爱的处事美德和在人际关系中的宽容,有助于消除新疆在民族和宗教领域的历史成见和文化偏见。

 

Uygur Traditional Social Ethical Thoughts and Construction of Harmonious Ethnic Regions

Maimaiti•Wusiman

Abstract:Xinjiang Uygur traditional social ethics are not only in the development and inheritance of Uygur culture, but also significant part of Uygur social life, which plays a very important role in Uygur social mentality, national sentiment, and enhancing harmonious stability of ethnic region. Uygur traditional social ethics comprise three major aspects: 1. Patriotism, and harmonious social value. Harmonious social value is embedded in some Uygur proverbs and modern philosophers’ works. Such as “Be a coolie in homeland is even better than being an emperor in a foreign country”, “A man out of homeland is like a bird away from the forest.”, “Unity, no secession”. Harmonious social value is based on the harmonious relationship among the four elements in Uygur traditional “Four Elements View”: water, earth, air, and fire, so they believe there are harmonious relationships within “nature”, among “man and nature”, “man and society”, “man and man”. 2. Equal, fair, and tolerate interpersonal relationship. “Equality” is the foundation and guarantee of harmonious interpersonal relationship. “Fairness” means no bias, and searching balance and neutralization among things when handling various social problems. “Tolerance” is the willingness to tolerate different thoughts, ideas and characteristics, other’s behavior, and respect people’s interests and hobbies. 3. Fraternal unity, aid of the poor, and loving neighbors. Fraternal unity could fix interpersonal relationship, and also is the form of its existence. Aid of the poor requires everyone to help others when he is capable, which can avoid the extreme wealth gap. Loving neighbors means people should be nice to their neighbors instead of being rude. The function of Uygur traditional ethics in construction of harmonious ethnic region could be elaborated from four perspectives: 1. Traditional ethnic thoughts are spiritual guide for harmonious development in harmonious ethnic regions. Difficult geographical condition, such as the Gobi, desert, and mountains do not impede Xinjiang’s development, in stead, the harmonious thoughts in Uygur social ethnics and Uygur’s diligence and courage have laid the foundation for Xinjiang’s development. 2. The “dual loyalty”: “royalism” and “emperor worship” has become a combination of loving country and loving religion in modern society. “Loyalty” has been united with socialist core values, to develop as modern citizen consciousness. 3. Traditional ethnic thoughts could be transferred into the basic principles to facilitate harmonious interpersonal relationship in ethnic region, and could utilize the communicative skills, such as equality, fairness and tolerance, and these virtues, such as fraternal unity, aid of the poor, and loving neighbors to adjust profit distribution among different nationalities. 4. The harmonious social view in the traditional social ethnics, virtue of fraternal unity, and tolerance help eliminate the historical and cultural bias on ethnic and religious area in Xinjiang.

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