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少数民族语言权利保障的哲学思考

2016-09-28 18:19:06   来源:中国人权网   作者:芦文龙

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东北财经大学副教授  芦文龙 (赵一帆 摄)


少数民族语言权利保障的哲学思考

  对“语言问题”进行哲学研究已成为现代西方哲学研究的中心问题。语言的本质是构成人的历史存在的基础。从哲学视角思考少数民族语言的本质、意义,对少数民族语言权利保障具有一定的宏观指导意义。少数民族语言是少数民族存在的家园,是构成少数民族的历史存在的基础,是少数民族是其所是的标志,少数民族存在于其语言中,如果少数民族语言消亡,那少数民族语言权利保障就无从谈起。少数民族的政治、经济、社会权利和其他文化权利都可以通过宪法、法律、优惠政策及制度设计等进行保障。但少数民族语言权利的保障与少数民族其他文化权利、政治权利、经济权利和社会权利的保障最大不同之处就在于,随着社会生产力的不断发展,在整体上少数民族大部分权利的保障程度得到了相应提高,但少数民族语言权利保障状况则并非如此。受语言生态环境等因素影响,世界范围内的语言仍在继续消失。这也是保障少数民族语言权利所面临的困境。具有高清晰度、高确实度的统一语言(如英语、普通话)与经济全球化、城镇化进程相适应,俨然成为了文明、现代化和科学的代名词。在统一语言高频率使用之时,少数民族语言使用频率就降低。统一语言被上升到了绝对的高度,获得了一定的优势甚至权威,在这种优势、权威的通行之下,包括少数民族在内的所有民族形成了一种语言的拜物教。现代社会,语言拜物教的现象就越严重,少数民族语言在客观上被排斥、在主观上被遗弃的速度也就越快。统一的语言必将导致少数民族语言的消亡,这是现代社会保障少数民族语言权利的困境所在。对此,可以从内外两种路径对少数民族语言权利保障进行探索:内在路径即培养少数民族的文化自信,特别要养成少数民族对自己语言的热爱情怀和传承、发展意识,要树立少数民族对本民族语言的权利意识,自觉抵制统一语言的拜物教;外在路径即政府机构通过宪法、法律、优惠政策及制度设计等加大对少数民族语言权利的保障力度。
 

Philosophical Reflection on the Protection of the Language Rights of Ethnic Minorities

Lu-wen-long

Philosophical studies on "language issue" have become a central concern of modern Western philosophy. Language essentially is the basis on which the historical being of human beings is founded. Studying the nature and significance of the languages of ethnic minorities from the perspective of philosophy can offer some guidance on the macro level to the protection of such languages. The existence of an ethnic minority hinges on the language of that ethnic minority, which is the basis of the historical being of the minority, andthe very symbol by which the minority group becomes what it is. In a sense, the being of ethnic minorities lies in their languages. If the language of an ethnic language becomes extinct, then any talk about protecting its language will become totally irrelevant.

While the protection of political, economic, and social rights as well as other cultural rights of minority ethnic groups can be guaranteed by constitutions and laws, preferential policies, and properly designed institutional structures, the protection of language rights of minorities is drastically different in that with the steady increase in social productivity, the protection of most rights of ethnic minorities has been generally improved, but the protection of their language rights has not. Rather, due to the linguistic ecological environment, the worldwide extinction of some languages continues, which poses a dilemma for protecting the language rights of ethnic minorities.

Unified languages (e.g., English and Mandarin) that are highly clear and accurate areadaptable  to economic globalization and urbanization, and therefore have apparently become synonymous with civilization, modernization and science. While such unified languages are used highly frequently, the languages of ethnic minorities are becoming increasingly less used. As the status of unified languages are dramatically elevated, such languages have acquired a certain degree of superiority or even dominance over other languages. Such overwhelming superiority or dominance have become so prevailing that all nations, including minority ethnic groups, have been converted into followers of language fetishism, so to speak. As language fetishism becomes more and more widespread in contemporary world, the process by which languages of minorities become rejected objectively and abandoned subjectively are accelerated. The dominance of unified languages will inevitably lead to the demise of minority languages, that is the essence of the dilemma faced by the bid to protect the languages of minority groups in the contemporary world..

In the face of such a dilemma, two approaches, one external, and the other internal, may be adopted to explore the protection of the language rights of ethnic minorities. The internal approach involves cultivating the cultural self-confidence of minority ethnic groups, especially their love for and willingness to inherit and develop their own languages, boosting their awareness of their rights to their own languages, so that they will actively resist fetishism of unified languages. The external approach, on the other hand, calls for the government to step up the protection for the language rights of ethnic minorities through Constitution, laws, preferential policies and specifically designed institutions.

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