首页 > 专题2016 > 2016中欧人权研讨会 > 观点精粹 >
云南少数民族文化教育和文化权利保障的理论与实践

2016-09-28 18:09:24   来源:中国人权网   作者:黎尔平

\
昆明理工大学教授  黎尔平 (赵一帆 摄)


云南少数民族文化教育和文化权利保障的理论与实践

  基于云南特定的地理位置和经济、历史背景,在“建设民族文化大省”方针下,云南初步建立起少数民族文化教育和文化权利保障体系。云南的少数民族教育和文化建设体系主要有五个方面的内容和特点:第一,给予少数民族学生入学考试加分的优惠政策。第二,大力开展“双语”教学。第三,开设民族团结和民族文化教育校本课程。第四,建设“民族团结示范学校”。第五,大力培养少数民族师资。云南少数民族文化的学校教育实际上是实现少数民族文化权利的表现形式。但是,云南少数民族学校文化教育权利不是以诉求的方式实现的,云南少数民族对文化教育的要求不仅仅是为了文化而文化,文化教育的目的是为了经济和社会发展,从人权角度而言,就是实现发展的权利。云南少数民族文化建设担当着“文化搭台,经济唱戏”的角色,于学校教育而言,当社会一旦有旅游观光的需要,当文化保护和传承可以带来旅游经济效益,提供就业机会的时候,学校少数民族文化教育就获得了极大的动力,少数民族文化教育转换为经济发展权利的实现。在政府的民族政策下,各级政府通过“文化搭台,经济唱戏”的形式传承和发展民族文化,从而促进民族团结和谐、边疆稳定。但是,初步判断,在云南少数民族文化中是没有权利和文化权利概念的,民族文化权利保障不是在权利冲突——诉求——保障的权利话语体系中进行的,而是在“民族大团结”、“边疆和谐稳定”和“民族文化大省”的话语下进行,可以初步认为,权利话语在此过程中可能并没有发生作用,即云南民族文化权利保障是一个外来话语体系,外来的权利概念很难嵌入到现有的话语体系中。
 

Theory and Practice on Protection of Minority Cultural Education and Cultural Rights in Yunnan

Li Erping

  Yunnan province has established a protection system of minority cultural education and cultural rights under the guideline of “establishing ethnic cultural province” and in light of the particular geographic position and economic and historical background of Yunnan. The minority education and cultural construction system in Yunnan mainly contains the five aspects, which are: giving minority students favorable scoring in entrance examination;developing “bilingual” teaching vigorously; setting school-based courses concerning ethnic solidarity and ethnic culture education; constructing “ethnic solidarity model school”; and cultivating minority teachers vigorously. As a matter of fact, the school education of minority culture in Yunnan is the form of realizing minority cultural rights. However, the rights of cultural education in minority schools in Yunnan are not excised by appeals, and the demand of minorities in Yunnan for cultural education is not only for culture itself, but also for the economic and social development, which is, from the perspective of human rights, the right to achieve development. The minority cultural construction in Yunnan plays a role as “stimulating the economic development through cultural construction”. With regard to school education, the minority cultural education may be greatly motivated and transformed into the realization of economic development rights once there is a need for tour and sightseeing in the society and the protection and inheritance of culture may generate economic benefits in tourism and provide employment opportunities. Governments at all levels have inherited and developed ethnic culture through “stimulating the economic development through cultural construction” under the governmental ethnic policies, to promote the ethnic solidarity and harmony and stabilization of borderland. But from preliminary judging, the minority culture of Yunnan contains no concept of rights or cultural rights, and the protection of ethnic cultural rights is not proceeded under the discourse system of “right conflict-appeal-right protection”, but under the discourse of “Greater National Union”, “harmony and stabilization of borderland”, and “ethnic cultural province”. Therefore, it can be believed preliminarily that the discourse rights might have no effect in such progress, namely, the protection of ethnic cultural rights in Yunnan is a foreign discourse system, and it is hard to enroll the foreign concepts of rights into the existing discourse system.

分享到:

上一篇:回族传统医药“汤瓶八诊”商标系列诉讼案的法文化反思
下一篇:欧洲一体化中少数人语言权保护问题研究