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我国少数民族环境权利保护刍议

2016-09-28 18:03:45   来源:中国人权网   作者:古力阿扎提·吐尔逊

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新疆大学教授 古力阿扎提·吐尔逊  (赵一帆 摄)


我国少数民族环境权利保护刍议

  中国涉及少数民族生态环境保护法律体系包括五个层次:第一个层次是《中华人民共和国宪法》中的有关生态资源方面的规定;第二个层次是环境保护法律;第三个层次是生态环境资源保护方面的单行法律及其条例;第四个层次是部门法中的保护环境权方面的规定;第五个层次是少数民族地区的地方环境保护条例。
  尽管上述法律体系对保障中国少数民族的环境权起到一定的作用,但是环境资源保护机制中的环境权利保护规则的缺乏、执行障碍与盲目的经济发展目标引发了少数民族环境权利保护的一些列问题。具体而言,当前少数民族环境权利保护重存在的问题包括:一是一些少数民族因生活贫困、过分依赖生态资源而导致的破坏性资源利用行为;二是生态环境保护的管理机制比较落后,没能及时禁止经济发展中出现的生态环境遭受破坏的问题;三是生态资源保护法律和环境保护法律中的相互冲突规定和地方环境法制建设的薄弱影响了少数民族环境权的有效保护。
进一步保护少数民族环境权利的建议有:一是充分发挥少数民族的传统生态环境理念在保护少数民族地区生态环境的作用;二是健全少数民族地区环境保护部门的管理职能,尤其是进一步明确环境管理部门的职能和具体的权利义务,弱化资源部门干涉环境部门的环境监督工作职能;三是提高少数民族环境执法人员和专业人员的综合素质,加强环保工作的执法效力。
 

On the Protection of Environmental Rights ofMinority Ethnic Groups in China(abstract)

Guliazhati•Tuerxun

The legal system of the preservation and protection of the ecosystem of ethnic groups in China concerns five levels. The first one is the stipulation and regulations about ecosystem and resources in Constitution of the People's Republic of China; the second one is the laws of environmental protection; the third one is the statutes and regulations relevant to the protection of ecosystem and resources; the fourth one is the rules of the protection of environmental rights stipulated in law branch; the fifth one is the regional regulations of environmental protection in minority areas. In this way, China has formed a relatively comprehensive legal system of securing Environmental Rights of Ethnic Groups, with Constitution at the core, Environmental Protection Law being the basic law, relevant laws, regulations and decrees being the main content, and regional regulations being the supplement. 

Although the legal system mentioned above has exerted certain positive influence on securing the environmental rights of ethnic groups in China, some problems still cannot be ignored due to the lack of specific rules of the protection of environmental rights in the mechanism, barriers to implementation and blind goals of economic development. The existing problems are specifically listed as follows. First, some minorities have exploited the resources to a destructive degree because of poverty and over-independence on ecosystem. Second, the administrative mechanism of preserving and protecting ecosystem is lagging behind, which makes it difficult to deal with the problems in the course of economic development. Third, the effective protection of environmental rights of minorities is held back by some conflicting regulations between ecological protection laws and environmental protection laws, as well as the weak regional promotion of the rule of law.

The following are the suggestions for further securing environmental rights of ethnic groups. First, we should promote the traditional ecological value of minorities to urge them to make a contribution. Second, we should improve the administration and governance of the department of environmental protection, and especially further clarify the duties, obligations and rights of relevant departments. At the same time, the intervention of the resource department in the management of the environmental department should be weakened. Third, we should enhance education of the environmental law enforcement personnel and professional personnel in minority areas, so as to strengthen the enforcement efficiency.

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