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少数民族服刑人文化权利保障问题初探

2016-09-28 18:01:00   来源:中国人权网   作者:贡太雷

\中央司法警官学院副教授 贡太雷  (赵一帆 摄)


少数民族服刑人文化权利保障问题初探

  中国少数民族服刑人员文化权利保障是少数民族权利保护的重要组成部分,也是少数民族权利保护力度和广度较为直观的体现。在要求法制统一的现代中国,接受司法制裁的少数民族服刑人在监管教育改造中的文化权益是如何得到保护的,其保护机制的内容和特点是什么,无疑是非常值得探究的问题。我国少数民族犯罪治理方面的刑事政策,在涉及少数民族服刑人权利保护具体机制规范时做了一些相应的变通性规定,一般而言,对少数民族的犯人,从尊重其民族文化风俗习惯的角度出发,都会对其给予适当的照顾。不过,当前的少数民族服刑人员文化权利保障,其内容主要体现在促进其生计及其方式和必需条件的改善之上,涵盖语言使用、饮食文化习惯和各种文化娱乐活动等方面,在宗教习惯方面的少数民族文化权利保护方面相对比较审慎,从文明认同、文化整合的内涵出发的思考和发展还存有不足。对少数民族服刑人员文化权利的保障方式,当前主要是以政策性和行政化的模式予以运行和推进,其主要价值取向在于监管安全秩序和特殊群体风险管理,其制度理性仍然是维稳中的护权思路,倾向于被动地缓和和解决矛盾,积极主动从法理上去推进少数民族平等权和实现社会自由还需要付出更多的智慧和努力。如何实现少数民族服刑人员文化权利保障的制度化和法治化,如何在矫正领域中发挥少数民族服刑人的主体性文化适应功能和效果,如何从国家法治理性重构少数民族文化权利保护的行动和价值等,仍然是我国少数民族文化权利保护发展中亟需解决的当代课题。
 

On the Protection of the Cultural Rights of Ethnic Minority Prisoners

Gong tailei

Abstract: The protection of ethnic minority prisoners’ cultural rights is not only an important part of the protection of the rights of ethnic minorities, but also directly reflects both the vigor and range of the protection efforts. In contemporary China, where a unified and consistent legal system is called for, how the cultural rights of ethnic minority prisoners under judicial sanction are protected, and the contents and features of the protection mechanism are undoubtedly issues highly worthy of studying.

In China, criminal policies intended to address criminal offenses by members of ethnic minority communities include certain adaptive clauses in connection with the protection of the rights of ethnic minority inmates. Under such clauses, a certain of flexibility is generally allowed for ethnic minority inmates out of respect for their ethnic customs and practices.

However, current protection of ethnic minority prisoners’ cultural rights is mainly in the form of improving their livelihood and bettering the requisite conditions, which cover such aspects as language option, dietary habits and access to recreation and entertainment. When it comes to the protection of ethnic cultural rights, including respect for religious customs, a more cautious approach has been followed, which is inadequate in terms of consideration and promotion of civilization identification and cultural integration. As for the means by which the cultural rights of ethnic minority inmates are protected, administrative and policy-orientated methods remain dominant, and are mainly orientated toward security and order and controlling risks relating to specific groups. The institutional basis of such methods remain the approach to right protection as is used in “stability maintenance”, which favors passively alleviating and solving problems. If a positive and proactive approach to promoting access by ethnic minority groups to equal rights and achieving social liberty, more wisdom and efforts are still needed.In this regard, how to institutionalize the protection of ethnic inmates’ cultural rights and bring it in line with the rule of law, how to bring into play the function and effect of ethnic inmates’ own voluntary cultural adaptation in judicial correction, and ultimately how to restructure both the actions and values embodied in the protection of ethnic minority inmates’ cultural rights in the context of rational governance of the country on the basis of the rule of law, still remain urgent issues to be addressed in advancing China’s protection of ethnic minority inmates cultural rights. 

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