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欧洲少数民族母语差别教育权利及其保障之比较

2016-09-28 17:57:10   来源:中国人权网   作者:陈•巴特尔

\南开大学教授 陈•巴特尔   (赵一帆 摄)


欧洲少数民族母语差别教育权利及其保障之比较
——以挪威萨米人为例

  全世界共有约3亿土著人,分布在70多个国家,使用4000种不同的语言。自十五世纪末欧洲国家发起殖民运动以来,以西方文化为核心的全球一体化进程不断加深;同时随着发展中国家现代化与城市化进程的加快,大规模国内外移民的出现,导致这些国家原住民及少数民族人口在政治、经济、社会和文化诸多方面处于弱势地位,尤其是他们的语言、文化及其传统知识都濒临消失的境地。语言是人类彼此交流的工具,是促进认知发展的媒介。对于民族而言,每一种语言都代表着一种特有的世界观、哲学、文化与思维方式,是人类宝贵的文化遗产。语言与教育的关系密切,语言不仅仅是完成教育、教学过程的媒介,它本身就是教育的重要内容,正规教育对语言的保持、发展和消亡都起着决定性的作用。语言是人权的重要议题,涉及母语的语言人权既包括对一种或多种母语的认同权,又包括用一种或多种母语作为媒介进行教育和公共服务的权利。无论是世界性人权宣言,还是各种人权国际公约,都把不同语言的群体和不同群体的语言做为人权保护的对象。针对原住民、少数民族语言消失和弱化的现象与趋势,国际社会与各国政府采取措施,实施母语教育差别权利的维护与保障。萨米人是欧洲唯一的原住民和最大的少数民族,挪威萨米人口约4万人,占总人口的0.9%。在欧洲主体民族到达北欧之前,萨米人就在这里生活了近万年,欧洲主体民族的陆续到来,迫使萨米人迁徙到北极圈附近。伴随欧洲人的到来,基督教开始在萨米社会里传播。18-19世纪,欧洲人发起针对萨米传统信仰-萨满教的“灭巫”运动,强制实行宗教同化教育。19世纪中期以后的一百多年,萨米语言文化经历“严冬”其,挪威当局实施严厉的“一个国家一种文化”的挪威化政策,萨米语得到歧视,学校里不准讲萨米语,萨米儿童不得与父母家人用母语交流。第二次世界大战后,受世界原住民运动的影响,跨北欧四国的“泛萨米”运动兴起。挪威等国反思过去的同化政策,实行利于萨米语言文化复兴的差别权利保障政策。成立萨米议会、颁发《萨米民族法》和《萨米语言法》、在中小学开设萨米语言课程,从立法、组织、经费、监督等方面,切实保障萨米人的母语教育差别权利。
 

On the Group-differentiated Rights of Ethnic Minorities in Their Mother Tongue Education in Europe
——A Case Study of the Sami People in Norway(abstract)

Bateer Chen

There are about 300 million indigenous people in the world, distributed in more than 70 countries across the world, using 4,000 different languages. In the end of the 15th century, European countriesembarked on the colonization of other parts of the world. Since then, with the deepening of globalization and acceleration of modernization and urbanization in developing countries, the resultingflow of domestic and international immigrantshas made indigenous people and ethnic minorities there vulnerable politically, economically, socially and culturally. In particular, their language, culture and traditional knowledgeare on the brink of extinction.Language is the tool of human communication, and the medium to promote cognitive development. For each ethnic group, its language embodies its unique world view, philosophy, culture and way of thinking, and is therefore part of the precious cultural heritage of the human race. There is a close relation between language and education since language is not only the medium of education, it is also an important part of education in its own right.In this sense, formal and regular education determines whether a language can be maintained and developed or otherwise becomes extinct. Language is also an important human rights issue: language as human right, which concerns one’s mother tongue, involves not only the right to identify with one or more month tongues, but also the right to use one or more mother tongues as the medium of education and public services. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as numerous international human rights conventions provide protection to all language groups and the languages of different communities. In view of the trend that the languages of indigenous people and ethnic minorities are weakened or even disappear in some cases, the international community and the governments of many countries have adopted measures to maintain and guarantee the group-differentiated rightsto mother tongue education. A case in point is the Sami people of Norway, who are the only indigenous peopleas well as the largest ethnic minority in Europe. With a population of about 40,000,Sami peopleaccount for 0.9% of the total population of the country. They had been living in northern Europe for almost 10,000 years before the ancestors of today’s main ethnic groups in Europe first set foot there. However, with the influx of peoples who later came to dominate Europe, Sami people were forced to move to regions near the Arctic Circle and Christianity began to spread among the Sami people.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Europeans launched a "witch hunting" movement specifically targeting traditional Sami Shamanism and imposed on Sami people religious assimilation through education. In the more than 100 years after the middle of the 19th century, the Sami language and culture underwent "a severe winter". As the Norwegian authorities implementeda strict "one country,one culture" policy, Sami languagewas discriminatedagainst and Sami students were not permitted to usethe Sami language in school or even when they talked with their parents. However, Norway and other countries in the region started to question their assimilation policy toward the Sami people, spurred by the "pan-Sami" movement that emerged in the Nordic countries echoing to the global indigenous movements after World War II. Eventually they replaced that policy with new policies facilitating the the Sami’s group-differentiated right to Sami language education. In particular, these countries have established Sami parliaments, enacted the Sami Act and the Sami Language Act, as well as offered Sami language coursesin primary and secondary schools, in a bid to effectively guarantee the Sami people’s right to mother tongue education through legislative, institutional, financial and regulatory means.

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