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少数民族流动人口社会融入中维权策略的演进

2016-09-28 17:51:57   来源:中国人权网   作者:才让旺秀


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西南民族大学讲师  才让旺秀  (赵一帆 摄)

  随着中国城镇化的不断深入,少数民族流动人口大量涌入城市谋求发展以改善现有的生活条件,这种人口的外部运动呈现出逐年上升的趋势,可以预期在今后很长一个时期内,少数民族流动人口将持续且有规律的增加。虽然少数民族流动人口使城市文化多样性得到加强,并且在一定程度上推动了经济发展的脚步,但因文化冲突和利益纷争所导致的矛盾纠纷也势必有所增加。本文通过观察少数民族流动人口在融入社会过程中维权策略的转变,借以研究影响这一群体权利实现的因素。在实证研究的基础上,研究发现,由于制度性排斥和社会排斥等因素的影响,这部分群体需要不断的调整自己的维权策略,以得到公正的待遇,在权益受损时通过采取暴力手段等形式进行维权的事件屡见不鲜。同时研究还发现,少数民族流动人口由于自己条件的所限无法通过正常的申诉渠道维护自己的合法权利。虽然这种情况有所改变,越来越多的少数民族流动人口正在尝试以相对文明和有效的策略的实现诉求,但是不容忽视的是: 语言障碍、文化差异等因素的制约,少数民族流动人口纷纷回到起点采取其认为行之有效的诉求表达方式,即通过群体性事件引起政府注意,以民族矛盾和民族关系不和谐为施压手段,迫使政府满足其诉求,即便在很多情况下这种诉求并不合理有时甚至违法。研究表明,如何消解由于制度性排斥和社会排斥对少数民族流动人口城市融入的影响,畅通诉求表达渠道和机制成为亟待解决的重要问题。
 

Legal Advice on Protecting the Right ofethnic minority migrants in Urban AreastoUse Their Own Ethic Language in Litigation

Cairangwangxiu

With the rapid marketization and urbanization of China since the reform and opening-up policy was adopted, the population of ethnic minority migrants hasbeen experiencing a sustained and rapidgrowth, which poses new challenges and put forward new requirements for judicial organs in urban areas to protectethnic minority migrantsto usetheir ownethniclanguages, specifically including the following aspects: firstly, more such cases have come into the judicial proceedings; secondly, higher-quality translation are needed in the cases involving ethic minorities;thirdly, various dialects of ethic migrants make it difficultbut still necessary to work out unified translation standards; fourthly, the language issue has become a barrier to hindering judicial justice.At present, the judicial authorities, when facing the increasing numbers of lawsuits involving ethnic minority migrants, have made use of their resources to take measures to guarantee the minorities’ right, to a great extent, to participate in litigationusing their own ethnic languages and thereby maintain judicial justice. But meanwhile, the existing weak points cannot be ignored,e.g., judicial authorities do not have adequate bilingual legal professionals who are proficient inboth Mandarin Chinese and one or more ethnic minority language. As a result, the translation process is not professional enough, and consequently it is hard to establish unified translation standards. In view of this, this paper put forward the following advice to guarantee the ethnic minority migrants’ right to use their own language in litigation: measures should be taken in three respects, namely, judicial mechanism, procedures and structures,so as to improve the quality of legal translation, including to set up a recruitment system for bilingual professionals, draw up laws and policies to professionalize translation process and establish a talent pool, so as to cultivate professional translators systematically. To put it specifically, firstly, the judicial system should be further improve. Efforts should be made to specify the rights and obligations of translators, set up an accountability system, put forward employment policies intended to guarantee that the judicial authorities are well equipped with necessary judicial personnel, draw up funding policies to subsidize translation agencies primarily engaged in providing judicial translation from and into ethnic minority languages, and establish a certification and registration system for judicial translators between Chinese and minority ethnic languages. Secondly, in order to advance the training of competent translators, a systematic and sufficient training program should be createdto expand the scope of the bilingual training programsinvolving judiciary staff. Finally, legal terms in ethnic minority  languages and standard vocabulary must be unified and standardized in three respects, firstly formulate laws and regulations to standardize minority language used in the field of judicial prosecution; second, give full play to the role of the translation departments and research institutions; third, attach importance to feedback based on judicial practices.
 

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